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# Tahsili Chemistry (Chemical Calculations) Cheat Sheet by TheGoldenClover

2024 Tahsili Chemistry, Chemical Calculations

### Moles

 Avogadro's number 6.02 x 1023 Molar Mass the mass of one mol of a substance

### Gas Laws

 Boyle's Law (Constant Temp) P1V1 = P2V2 Graph Shape a decreasing curve Charle's Law (Constant Pressure) V1/T1 = V2/T2 Graph Shape an increasing line Gay-Lu­ssac's Law (Constant Volume) P1/T1 = P2/T2 Graph Shape an increasing line General Law P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT (R = 0.082) Standard Conditions (STP) temp = 273 K / 0 C and P = 1 atm Avogadro's Principle equal volumes of gases have equal number of particles at the same temp and pressure

### Chemical Potential Energy and Heat

 Chemical Potential Energy the stored energy in the structure of matter Heat the energy transf­erred between objects (Joules) Calorie the amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 degree C Heat Content (H) the amount of stored heat energy per mol under constant pressure Change in Heat Content / Enthalpy (ΔH) the energy absorbed or released in a reaction Enthalpy Formula ΔH = H (products) - H (react­ants) H (products) < H (react­ants) the reaction is exothe­rmic, and will have a negative value H (products) > H (react­ants) the reaction is endoth­ermic, and will have a positive value Hess's law states that regardless of the multiple stages, the total enthalpy change is the sum of all the changes Standard heat of formation The change in heat content when 1 mol of compound is formed from its elements in standard conditions endoth­ermic = positive = cold reactions exothermic = negative = warm reactions the heat of formation in standard conditions = 0

### Empirical and Molecular Formulas

 Percent compos­ition of A in AB ( Mass of A / Mass of AB ) x 100% Empirical Formula The simplest whole number ratio of atoms (Ex: CH) Molecular Formula The actual number of atoms in a molecule (Ex: C6H6) N whole Number N = molecular formula mass / empirical formula mass Hydrated Salts salts with water molecules in it's crystals when hydrated salts are heated, they lose their water

### Calcul­ations In Gases

 Limiting Reactant the substance that is used up completely Excess Reactant the substance that is not used up and remains after the reaction Theore­tical yield the largest amount of product that can be produced Actual Yield the amount produced by the experiment Percent Yield = (actual yield / theore­tical yield) x 100

### Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

 a gas is comprised of molecules whose average distance between each other is greater than the size of its particles The particles of a gas exert no attractive forces on each other or the container The particles are in constant random motion The KE of a particle depends on its mass and velocity

### Gas Behavior

 Diffusion the movement of particles from areas of high concen­tration to areas of low concen­tration Graham's Law of Diffusion Rate1 / Rate2 = √(molar mass 2 / molar mass 1) Flowing the movement of gases through small holes

### Pressure

 Pressure the force applied perpen­dic­ularly to the surface of an object per unit area SI unit Pascal (N/m2) Barometer measures atmosp­heric pressure Manometer measures the pressure of a trapped gas Dalton's Law of partial pressure the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the individual pressures

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