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Bio test 3 Cheat Sheet by

Cells and cancer study sheet test 3

Fill in phases of cell cycle

G0
most cells that will no longer divide
G1 phase
restri­ction point
S phase
chromo­somes duplicate
prophase
mitotic spindle begin to form
prophase
chromo­somes become visible
pro metaphase
kineto­cho­re-­mic­rot­ubule intera­ctions move chromo­somes to midline
metaphase
chromo­somes line up at central plate
anaphase
sister chromosome separate and chromo­somes move apart
telophase
nuclear membranes form around separated chromo­somes
cytoki­nesis
cell plate forms or cleavage furrow pinches cells apart

Probab­ilities of Genotype (example)

Cross
Offs­pring
Prob­abi­lity
AAbb X AaBb
AAbb
1/4
AaBB X AaBb
aaBB
1/8
AABbcc X aabbCC
AaBbCc
1/2
AaBbCc X AaBbcc
aabbcc
1/32

Blood Groups of Man who could not be the father

Child
Mother
Man
AB
A
no groups exonerated
O
B
A or O
A
AB
A or O
O
O
AB only
B
A
B or O

Steps of transc­ription

Initiation
Transc­ription factors bind to promoter and facilitate the binding of RNA polymerase II, forming a transc­ription initiation complex; RNA polymerase II separates DNA strands and RNA synthesis begins at the start point.
Elongation
RNA polymerase II moves along the DNA strand, connecting RNA nucleo­tides that have paired to the DNA template to the 3' end of the growing RNA strand
Termin­ation
After polymerase transc­ribes past a polyad­eny­lation signal sequence, the pre-mRNA is cut a released.
 

Phases of cell cycle

Interphase
90% of cell cycle; growth and DNA replic­ation
G1 phase
Chromosome consists of a long thin chromatin fiber made of DNA and associated proteins; growth and metabolic activities occur.
S phase
Synthesis of DNA. Chromosome is duplic­ated; two exact copies (sister chroma­tids) are produced and held together tightly at their centro­meres and by cohesions along with their length; growth and metabolic activities continue.
G2 phase
Growth and metabolism continue
Mitotic phase
Cell division occurs
Prophase
The sister chroma­tids, held together by sister chromatid cohesion, become coiled and tightly condensed.
Promet­aphase
Kineto­chore fibers from opposite ends of the mitotic spindle attach to the kineto­chores of the sister chroma­tids; the chromo­somes move towards midline.
Metaphase
The centromere of the chromosome is aligned at the metaphase plate along with the centro­meres of the other chromo­somes.
Anaphase
Cohesins are cleaved and the sister chromatids separate (now considered individual chromo­somes) and move to opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase
Chromatin fiber of the chromosome uncoils and is surrounded by reforming nuclear membrane.

Processes of transc­ription and transl­ation

 
Tran­scr­ipt­ion
Tran­sla­tion
Template
DNA
RNA
Location
nucleus (cytoplasm in prokar­yotes)
cytoplasm; ribosomes can be free or attached to ER
Molecules involved
RNA nucleo­tides, DNA template strand, RNA polyme­rase, transc­ription factors
amino acids, tRNA, mRNA, ribosomes, ATP, GTP, enzymes, initia­tion, elonga­tion, and release factors.
Enzymes involved
RNA polyme­rase, splice­osomes
aminoa­cyt­l-tRNA synthe­tase, ribosomal enzymes (riboz­ymes)
Control- start and stop
transc­ription factors locate promoter region with TATA box and start point, polyad­eny­lation signal sequence to stop
initiation factors, initiation sequence (AUG), stop codons, release factor
Product
primary transcript (pre-mRNA)
polype­ptide
Product processing
RNA proces­sing: 5' cap and poly-A tail, splicing of pre-mRNA, introns removed by splice­osomes.
sponta­neous folding, disulfide bridges, signal peptide removed, cleaving, quaternary structure, modifi­cation with sugars, etc.
Eukary­otes*

Key events of meiosis

Interphase
Chromosome duplic­ation; sister chromatids attached at centromere and by sister chromatids cohesion along their lengths.
Prophase I
Chromo­somes condense. Synapsis of homologous pairs (held by synapt­onemal complex); crossing over (exchange of corres­ponding DNA segments) is evident at chiasmata.
Metaphase I
Homologous pairs line up indepe­ndently at metaphase plate (orien­tation of maternal and paternal homologs is random).
Anaphase I
Homologous pairs of chromo­somes separate and homologs move toward opposite poles; sister chromo­somes remain attached at centro­mere.
Metaphase II
Haploid set of chromo­somes, each consisting of 2 sister chroma­tids, aligns at metaphase plate; sister chromatids not identical due to crossing over.
Anaphase II
Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles as individual chromo­somes.

Levels of metaphase chromosome packing

1. Nucleo­somes (10-nm fiber of nucleo­somes and linker DNA)
2. 30-nm fiber
3. Looped domains (300-nm fiber)
4. coiling and folding of looped domains into highly condenses metaphase chromo­some.

DNA sequence info

Types of DNA
Desc­rip­tion
%
Exons or rRNA/t-RNA coding
Protein and RNA coding sequences
1.5
Introns
noncoding sequences with genes
20
Regulatory sequences
enhancers, promoters, and other such sequences
5
Transp­osable elements and related sequences
multiple copies of mostly movable sequences
44
Alu elements
family of short sequences related to transp­osable elements
10
L1 sequences
retrot­ran­sposons found in introns of most genes
17
Unique noncoding DNA
gene fragments and psuedo­genes
15
Large-­segment duplic­ations
multiple copies of large sequences
5-6
Simple sequence DNA
DNA centro­meres and telomeres, also STRs
3

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