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child develop. Cheat Sheet by

test 1 Dr. Cheung, midterm

Periods of Develo­pment

Prenatal (conce­pti­on-­birth)
Conception occurs and develo­pment begins. All of the major structures of the body are forming and the health of the mother is of primary concern. Unders­tanding nutrition, teratogens (or enviro­nmental factors that can lead to birth defects), and labor and delivery are primary concerns.
Infancy and Toddle­rhood (birth­-2yrs)
The first two years of life are ones of dramatic growth and change. A newborn, with a keen sense of hearing but very poor vision is transf­ormed into a walking, talking toddler within a relatively short period of time. Caregivers are also transf­ormed from someone who manages feeding and sleep schedules to a constantly moving guide and safety inspector for a mobile, energetic child.
Early Childhood (2-6 yrs)
This period is also referred to as the preschool years and consists of the years which follow toddle­rhood and precede formal schooling. As a two to six-ye­ar-old, the child is busy learning language, is gaining a sense of self and greater indepe­ndence, and is beginning to learn the workings of the physical world.
Middle and Late Childhood (6 ys-pub­erty)
The ages of six to the onset of puberty comprise middle and late childhood, and much of what children experience at this age is connected to their involv­ement in the early grades of school. Now the world becomes one of learning and testing new academic skills and by assessing one’s abilities and accomp­lis­hments by making compar­isons between self and others.
Adoles­cence (puberty- 18 yrs)
Adoles­cence is a period of dramatic physical change marked by an overall growth spurt and sexual matura­tion, known as puberty. It is also a time of cognitive change as the adolescent begins to think of new possib­ilities and to consider abstract concepts such as love, fear, and freedom. Ironic­ally, adoles­cents have a sense of invinc­ibility that puts them at greater risk of dying from accidents or contra­cting sexually transm­itted infections that can have lifelong conseq­uences.

Piaget Concepts

Schemas
A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in unders­tanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. In Piaget's view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experi­ences happen, this new inform­ation is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas.
Assimi­lation
The process of taking in new inform­ation into our already existing schemas is known as assimi­lation. The process is somewhat subjective because we tend to modify experi­ences and inform­ation slightly to fit in with our preexi­sting beliefs.
Accomm­odation
Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new inform­ation, a process known as accomm­oda­tion. Accomm­odation involves modifying existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new inform­ation or new experi­ences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.
Equili­bration
Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimi­lation and accomm­oda­tion, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equili­bra­tion. As children progress through the stages of cognitive develo­pment, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assim­ila­tion) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accom­mod­ation). Equili­bration helps explain how children can move from one stage of thought to the next.

Goals of Develo­pmental Research

Basic Research
Basic research is a research approach that is entirely theore­tical and aimed at improving or expanding the knowle­dge­-base of a particular field of study. It focuses on "­kno­wledge for its own sake" and it is primarily driven by curiosity and the need to explore the unknown.
Applied Research
Applied research is designed to focus on providing practical solutions to a specific problem. It is a form of invest­igation that entails soluti­on-­ori­ented inquiries into a phenom­enon,a field of study or research subject generally employing empirical method­olo­gies.
Action Research
It seeks transf­orm­ative change through the simult­aneous process of taking action and doing research, which are linked together by critical reflec­tion.
 

Fundam­ental Issues

Sources of develo­pment
How do nature and nurture interact to produce develo­pment?
Plasticity
To what degree, and under what condit­ions, is develo­pment open to change and interv­ention?
Contin­uit­y/D­isc­ont­inuity
To what extent does develo­pment consist of the gradual accumu­lation of small changes, and to what extent does it involve abrupt transf­orm­ations, or stages?
Individual differ­ences
To what extent are individual charac­ter­istics stable?

Piaget Stages

The Sensor­imotor Stage
Birth to 2 Years
The infant knows the world through their movements and sensations Children learn about the world through basic actions such as sucking, grasping, looking, and listening Infants learn that things continue to exist even though they cannot be seen (object perman­ence) They are separate beings from the people and objects around them They realize that their actions can cause things to happen in the world around them
The Preope­rat­ional Stage
2 to 7 Years
Children begin to think symbol­ically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects. Children at this stage tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from the perspe­ctive of others. While they are getting better with language and thinking, they still tend to think about things in very concrete terms.
The Concrete Operat­ional Stage
7 to 11 Years
During this stage, children begin to thinking logically about concrete events They begin to understand the concept of conser­vation; that the amount of liquid in a short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, skinny glass, for example Their thinking becomes more logical and organized, but still very concrete Children begin using inductive logic, or reasoning from specific inform­ation to a general principle
The Formal Operat­ional Stage
12 and Up
At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypoth­etical problems Abstract thought emerges Teens begin to think more about moral, philos­oph­ical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theore­tical and abstract reasoning Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific inform­ation

The Sensor­imotor Stage of Cognitive Develo­pment

Reflexes (0-1 month)
During this substage, the child unders­tands the enviro­nment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.
Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months)
This substage involves coordi­nating sensation and new schemas. For example, a child may suck his or her thumb by accident and then later intent­ionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasu­rable.
Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)
During this substage, the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intent­ionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the enviro­nment. For example, a child will purpos­efully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.
Coordi­nation of Reactions (8-12 months)
During this substage, the child starts to show clearly intent­ional actions. The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. Children begin exploring the enviro­nment around them and will often imitate the observed behavior of others. The unders­tanding of objects also begins during this time and children begin to recognize certain objects as having specific qualities. For example, a child might realize that a rattle will make a sound when shaken.
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)
Children begin a period of trial-­and­-error experi­men­tation during the fifth substage. For example, a child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.
Early Repres­ent­ational Thought (18-24 months)
Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world in the final sensor­imotor substage. During this time, children begin to move towards unders­tanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions.
 

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