Show Menu

Intro to Business: Management Models Cheat Sheet by

University 1st year introduction to business management models

What is management

Peter Drucker
Set goals, organise activi­ties, motivate and commun­icate, measure perfor­mance, develop people
Henri Fayol
"to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ord­inate, to contro­l" ; Functions of management (planning, organise, command, lead, coordi­nate, control); 14 principles of effective manage­ment; admini­str­ative management
14 principles of effective manage­ment:
division of work, authority and respon­sib­ility, discip­line, unity of command, unity of direction, subord­ination of individual interest to general interest, remune­ration of employees, centra­lis­ation and decent­ral­isa­tion, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of personnel, initia­tive, esprit de corps
Admini­str­ative manage­ment:
technical activi­ties, commercial activi­ties, financial activi­ties, security activi­ties, accounting activi­ties, managerial activities
Cole + Kelly
“Manag­ement is a process enabling organi­sations to set and achieve their objectives by planning, organi­sing, contro­lling their resources, including gaining the commitment of their employees (motiv­ation)”

Scientific champions

Frederick Taylor
Principles of Scientific Management (1911); sought to reduce the time taken to complete a task by undert­aking a “time and motion study” to find the “one best way” to complete a task
Henry Ford
Used specia­lis­ation to develop the production line and mass produc­tion; based on the organi­sation of slaugh­ter­houses
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Refined Taylor’s methods and improved time and motion studies; stressed the need for workers to have the correct tools and resources to complete the job; Lillian Gilbreth advocated for workers welfare


Transf­orm­ation processes must add value
To survive, businesses must innovate
the innovation of management is just as important as product innova­tions (Joan Magretta)

Management concerns and global challenges

UN global compact and Accenture 2023: Global educat­ional challenge, Climate change, Poverty, Gender diversity, Access to water and sanita­tion, Food security and hunger

Tradit­ional approach to new compet­encies

Overseeing work
from controller to enabler
accomp­lishing tasks
from superv­ising indivi­duals to leading teams
managing relati­onships
from conflict and compet­ition to collab­oration
from autocratic to empowering
from mainta­ining stability to mobilising for change

Mintzb­erg's managerial roles

Interp­ersonal roles
figure­head, leader, liaison
inform­ational roles
monitor, dissem­inator, spokes­person
decisional roles
entrep­reneur, distur­bance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

New public management

Modern public sector is more about value for money and reducing cost through improving ineffi­cie­ncies than a service for all no matter the cost
Popularity rose in the 1980s when management reform came into focus in the public sector, to make them “more business like”
Market­-or­ien­tated public sector as the ‘core philosophy to increase effici­ency’
Service provisions were decent­ralised with public services and private services pitching against each other for public sector contracts e.g. NHS
Why? To give the public sector the ‘more choice’ over which service contra­ctors to use

Contin­gency models

‘One best way’ to achieve a task cannot work
contingent upon situation
Perfor­mance depends upon having a structure that is approp­riate to the enviro­nment
Complex and unpred­ictable enviro­nme­ntF­lex­ibility in fast-c­hanging enviro­nment
Flexib­ility in fast-c­hanging enviro­nments
Flexib­ility in the interd­epe­ndence between subsystems
Subsystems are moving parts that depend on one another; difficult to change a subsystem without affecting the whole organi­sat­ion­/system
becoming "­agi­le"
how a business is managed depends upon the dynamics of the situation
Woodward, Burns, Stalker, Lawrence, Lorsch

Robert Katz management skills

technical skills
day to day operations
human or interp­ersonal management skills
conceptual skills
critical thinking
different layers of management
technical = human > conceptual
technical = human = conceptual
technical < human = conceptual

key management models

open systems model
towards expans­ion­/ad­apt­ion­;Katz, Khan + Thompson; organi­sation is part of a system that can deliver objectives
rational goal model
towards maximi­sation of output; author­itarian focus; assumes employees are only motivated by money; treats workers like machines; seen in developing economies
internal process model
towards consol­ida­tio­n/c­ont­inuity; bureacracy concept (Weber); tall struct­ures; stability and control within organi­sation
human relations model
towards human commit­ment; Follet; Hawthorne studies (Mayo); worker partic­ipation leads to increased produc­tivity


Useful for employees that prefer more stability and control; clear rules and regula­tions; reporting relati­onships are clear; clear lines of promotion; staff understand where they fit into the organi­sation; large organi­sations can streamline processes; way to manage large organi­sations to reduce chaos
Red tape (long processes) and the slow, clunky decision making; poor commun­ica­tion; lack of innova­tion; inability to react quickly; ineffi­ciency and waste of money; impersonal working relati­onships with emphasis on control

High-p­erf­ormance organi­sations

Knowledge management “involves everyone in an organi­sation in sharing knowledge and applying it to contin­uously improve products and processes” (Lussier)
Learning organi­sations share three charac­ter­istics:
Team-based structure; Partic­ipative manage­ment; Sharing of inform­ation through knowledge management
High-p­erf­ormance organi­sations
managed in a way that drives perfor­mance
HPOs create links between high-p­erf­ormance work systems and organi­sat­ional perfor­mance
Committed to success, staff develo­pment, and empowe­rment
Servant leadership is key


No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Project Management Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by studybuddy

          Business A-Level Edexcel Paper 2 Cheat Sheet
          Psych Approaches Advanced Info 2022 Cheat Sheet
          Strategy and Structure Cheat Sheet