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Psych Approaches Advanced Info 2022 Cheat Sheet by

AQA Psychology A-Level Approaches - 2022 Advanced Information only

Behavi­ourist Approach

rejects intros­pection
lab studies
observable and measurable behaviour
classical condit­ioning
uncond­itioned stimulus, neutral stimulus, uncond­itioned response, condit­ioned stimulus, condit­ioned response
Pavlov's dogs
food (ucs), bell (ns), saliva (ucr) > bell (cs), saliva (cr)
operant condit­ioning
positive reinfo­rce­ment, negative reinfo­rce­ment, punishment
Skinner's box
positive reinfo­rcement
reward for doing a behaviour
negative reinfo­rcement
reward for stopping a behavi­our­/avoids something unpleasant
negative conseq­uence for a behaviour

Psycho­dynamic Approach

role of the uncons­cious
vast storehouse of biological drives and instincts that has a signif­icant influence on our behaviour and person­ality + represses harmful memories
"gets what it wants", pleasure principle, part of the uncons­cious mind
mediator between id and superego, reality principle, part of the conscious mind, develops around age 2, defends uncons­cious mind against disple­asure through defence mechanisms
sense of right and wrong, morality principle, punishes ego for wrong doing through guilt, part of conscious and uncons­cious mind, develops around age 5
defence mechanisms
repres­sion, denial, displa­cement
psycho­sexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
oral stage
0-18 months, focus of libido is mouth
anal stage
1-3 years, focus of libido is the anus, ego develops as parents impose restri­ctions
phallic stage
3-6 years, focus of libido is genital area, identi­fic­ation with same-sex parent leads to formation of gender identity, superego develops through resolution of Oedipus or Electra complex
latency stage
earlier conflicts are repressed
genital stage
sexual desires become conscious alongside the onset of puberty, difficulty forming hetero­sexual relati­onships
Oedipus complex
feelings for mother, castration anxiety, "­bec­ome­" father
Electra complex
penis envy, desire father and view mother as rival, identify with mother, penis envy is replaced by desire for baby

Social Learning Theory

copying the behaviour of others
when an observer associates themselves with a role model and wants to be like the role model
imitating the behaviour of a role model/the precise demons­tration of a specific behaviour that might be imitated by an observer
vicarious reinfo­rcement
reinfo­rcement which is not directly experi­enced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour
mediat­ional processes
factors which determine whether a new response is acquired
the extent to which we notice certain behaviours
how well the behaviour is remembered
the ability of the observer to perform the behaviour
the will to perform the behaviour, often determined by whether the behaviour was rewarded or punished
Bandura's Bobo Doll Study

Humanistic Approach

free will
self determ­ining
active agents
reject more scientific models with general principles
subjective experience > general laws
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
physio­logical needs, safety needs, belong­ingness and love, esteem needs, self-a­ctu­ali­sation
concept of self must have congruence with ideal self
uncond­itional positive regard is necessary for healthy develo­pment
conditions of worth in childhood
causes psycho­logical problems in adulthood
client­-ce­ntred therapy


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