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Anatomy and Physiology Cheat Sheet Chapters 18-20 Cheat Sheet by

Exam #3 Cheat Sheet Blood, Heart, and Blood Vessels

Elements

Blood

Function of the Spleen
Graveyard. Dying RBCs are recycled in the spleen, liver, and red bone marrow by macrop­hages.
White Blood Cells
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas. Neutro­phils, Lympho­cyctes, Monocytes, Eosino­phils, Basophils. Leukocytes ~ There are 5 types of leukocytes organized into two classes. those are Agranular , which consists of lympho­cytes (20-25%) & monocytes (3-8%). Granular, which consists of basophils (.5-1%) neutro­phils (60-70%) & eosino­phils (2-4%)
Neutro­phils
Nucleus 2-5 lobes / Our bodies "­Bac­teria Slayer­s" / Initiate respir­atory bursts to kill bacteria / Produce antibo­tic­-like proteins called defensins
Lympho­cytes
Large single, dark purple, mostly made of lymph tissue. T-cells- AcT against virus-­infecTed cells & Tumor cells. Thymus- immuno­com­pet­enc­e/m­ature. B-cells- Become plasma cells which produce antiBodies ; Bone marrow- immuno­com­pet­enc­e/m­ature
Monocytes
Dark purple kidney or U-shaped nuclei. Largest leukocyte. Leave circul­ation and enter tissue- turn to macrop­hages. Activate lympho­cytes from immune response by releasing cytokines.
Eosino­phils
Red-st­aining, bi-lobed. Digest parasitic worms. Lessen the severity of allergies.
Basophils
Rarest WBCs. U or S-shaped. Contain large purpli­sh-­black granules. Histamine (vasod­ilator) & heparin (antic­oag­ulant) attracts other WBCs to inflamed sites & bronch­oco­nst­riction
Normal ph range for blood
7.35-7.45
Response to injury­/he­mos­tasis
Stoppage of bleeding. 1~Vascular Spasm 2~ Platelet Plug 3~Coag­ulation
Thromb­ocytes (Plate­lets)
Megaka­ray­ocy­te-­Cyt­opl­asmic cell fragments. Form a temporary plug to seal vessels
Leukocytes (WBC’s)
Are complete cells (They have a nucleus and organe­lles)
Erythr­ocytes (RBC’s)
Mature RBC’s have no nuclei or organelles (live approx. 120 days)
Hypoxia
Too few RBCs (anemia)
Erythr­opo­ietin (EPO)
Direct stimulus for erythr­opo­eisis Released by kidneys in response to “hypoxia”
Hemato­poiesis (Hemop­oiesis)
is the prolif­eration and differ­ent­iation of the formed elements of blood origin­ating from a Hemocy­toblast (stem cell).
Polycy­themia
excess RBCs > inc blood viscosity > heart attack or stroke. Polycy­themia vera~Bone marrow cancer due to a gene mutation. Secondary polycy­themia~less O2 available or inc EPO. Blood doping~(excess blood transf­usions)
Leukemia
cancerous conditions of abnormal production (increased #) Leukemias are named according to the abnormal WBCs involved Myelocytic leukemia~involves myelob­lasts Lympho­cytic leukemia~involves lympho­cytes (Acute: quickly develo­ping; primarily affects children Chronic: slow to develop; more prevalent in older people)
Location of Hemato­poiesis
Red Bone Marrow
Albumin
Most abundant protein

APTM Heart sounds

Blood Types

Heart Valves

 

Heart

Systole/ Diastole
Systole~ Contra­ction of the heart muscles. Diastole~ Relaxation of the heart muscles
Papillary Muscles
Contract & generate tension on chordae tendineae
Cardiac Reserve
Difference between resting and maximal cardiac output
Angina Pectoris
Pain due to deficient blood supply to the myocar­dium. Caused by transient stress­-in­duced spasms of coronary arteries, increased physical demands on the heart or arteri­osc­ler­osis. Cells are weakened.
Myocardial Infract
Hear Attack. Prolonged coronary blockage= prolonged lack of oxygen to the heart muscles= cardiac muscle cell death. These cells are AMITOTIC; replaced with non-co­ntr­actile scar tissue. May be repairable depending on the extent of the damage and time
Layers of the Heart
Epicardium aka visceral perica­rdium- visceral layer of the serous perica­rdium. Myocardium- Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells held together by elastic & collagen fibers that form a dense network called the Fibrous Skeleton of the heart. Endoca­rdium innermost- Endoth­elial layer of the inner myocardial surface that is continuous with blood vessel linings. Creates a smooth surface for easy blood flow.
Contra­ction of the Heart
Sinoatrial node (SA Node-P­ace­maker) 60-100 beats/min. Atriov­ent­ricular node (AV Node) 40-60 beats/min. Atriov­ent­ricular (AV) bundles (Bundle of His) 0-40 beats/min Right and Left bundle branches 0-40 beats/min Ventri­cular Purkinje Fibers 0-40 beats/min
Lub/Dub sounds
Caused by the closing of heart valves. First Sound~ occurs as AV valves close and signifies beginning of systole (contr­act­ion). Second Sound~ occurs when SL valves close at the beginning of ventri­cular diastole (relaxed)
Pathway of blood through Heart (Pulmonary circuit)
Right atrium­-tr­icuspid valve-­right ventri­cle­-pu­lmonary semilunar valve-­pul­monary arteri­es-­Lun­gs-­pul­monary veins-left atrium
Pathway of blood through Heart (Systemic circuit)
Left atrium­-bi­cuspid (mitral) valve-Left ventri­cle­-aortic semilunar valve-­aor­ta-to the body-vena cavas-­right atrium
Isovol­umetric contra­cti­on/­rel­axation
isovol­umetric Contra­ction~ All 4 valves are closed. Atria relax; ventricles contract (0.3 seconds) Isovol­umetric Relaxation~ All 4 valves are closed. Occurs in early diastole. Ventricles relax. Backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk closes semilunar valves. Quiescent period (0.4 seconds)
Ventri­cular Filling
Takes places mid-to­-late diastole. Atrial contra­ction (0.1 seconds). AV valves are open. 80% of blood passively flows into ventri­cles. Remaining 20% delivered with atrial systole. Heart blood pressure is low as blood enters atria and flows into ventri­cles.
Develo­pment aspects of the heart
Fetal heart structures that bypass pulmonary circul­ation. Forman Ovale~ connects the two atria. After birth this closes and becomes the Fossa Ovalis. Ductus Arteriosus~ connects pulmonary trunk and the aorta. After birth this closes and becomes the Ligamentum Ateriosum
Cardiac Output Equation
CO= SV (Stroke Volume) X HR (Heart Rate) If HR or SV goes up so does CO; same is true for going down
Stroke Volume Equation
SV= EDV (End Diastolic Volume) - ESV (End Systolic Volume) EDV~ amount of blood collected in a ventricle during diastole (120ml) ESV~ amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contra­ction (50ml) Average Stroke Volume~ 70ml
Norepi­nep­hrine
Sympat­hetic neuron activation releases Norepi­nep­hrine
Acetyl­choline
Parasy­mpa­thetic fibers in the vagus nerves release Acetyl­choline. If vagus nerves are cut= inc HR by ~ 25 bpm (THIS IS CALLED VAGAL TONE)
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
The heart is a "­double pump" and each side can initially fail indepe­ndently of the other. LEFT SIDE~ Pulmonary conges­tion~ blood backing up into the lungs > pulmonary edema. Can lead to suffoc­ation. RIGHT SIDE~ Peripheral Conges­tion~ blood backs up at the tissue level > edema in the extrem­ities. Can lead to tissue hypoxia.
Commotio Cordis
Often lethal disruption of heart rhythm that occurs as a result of a blow to the area directly over the heart, at a critical time during the cycle of a heart beat causing cardiac arrest. It is a form a ventri­cular fibril­lation, not mechanical damage to the heart muscle or surrou­nding organs, and not the result of heart disease.
Normal blood pressure in Pulmonary Trunk
24/8 mmHg
 

Blood Vessels

Arteri­es/­Art­erioles
Always carry blood away from the heart; oxygenated except for pulmonary circul­ation and umbilical vessels of fetus. ARTERIOLES~Smallest arteries; lead to capillary beds. Control blood flow into capillary beds via sympat­hetic nervous system vasoco­nst­riction (increased release of norepi­nep­hrine) and vasodi­lation (decreased release of norepi­nep­hrine)
Veins/­Venules
Always carry blood toward the heart; deoxyg­enated except in pulmonary circul­ation and umbilical vessel of fetus
Veins
Special adapta­tions to ensure return blood: Large-­dia­meter lumens: offer little resistance to blood flow Valves prevent backflow of blood Varicose veins and hemorr­hoids are the result of incomp­etent valves (valve failure).
Capill­aries
Contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs. Smallest blood vessels (micro­sco­pic). Walls consisting of thin tunica intima, one cell thickness. Diameter only allows a single RBC to pass at a time. Function: exchanges of gases, nutrients, and metabolic wastes between tissue and blood.
Neurot­ran­smitter released by Sympat­hetic and Parasy­mpa­thetic
Sympat­hetic~ NE-Nor­epi­nep­hrine Parasy­mpa­thetic~ACH-A­cet­ylc­holine
Antidi­uretic Hormone (ADH) effects of blood pressure
released when BP falls very low causes intense vasoco­nst­riction >> inc BP Also stimulates kidneys to conserve water
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Equation
pressure that propels blood through tissues. MAP=Di­ast­olic+ Pulse Pressure/3 (Example BP of 110/70 MAP=70­+11­0-70/3)
Renin-­ang­iot­ensin and effects of Angiot­ensin II and Aldost­erone
Renin-­ang­iot­ensin has a major effect on the cardio­vas­cular system. Renin is an enzyme, although some sources identify it as a hormone. Renin converts the plasma protein angiot­ens­inogen which is produced by the liver, into its active form angiot­ensin I. angiot­ensin I circulates in the blood and is then converted into angiot­ensin II in the lungs. Angiot­ensin II is a powerful vasoco­nst­rictor, greatly increasing blood pressure. It also stimulates the release of ADH and aldost­erone. (Angio­tensin II~ released in low renal prefusion (decreased BP). Kidney are stimulated to release of renin which generates angiot­ensin II. Initially creates vasoco­nst­riction (short term)>­>inc BP. Long term >> stimulates aldost­erone and ADH release>>inc blood volume­>>inc BP)
Blood pressure Equation
BP= CO (Cardiac Output) X PR (Perip­heral resist­ance)

Blood Pressure Chart

Blood Comp

 

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