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Anatomy and Physiology Cheat Sheet Chapters 18-20 Cheat Sheet by

Exam #3 Cheat Sheet Blood, Heart, and Blood Vessels



Function of the Spleen
Graveyard. Dying RBCs are recycled in the spleen, liver, and red bone marrow by macrop­hages.
White Blood Cells
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas. Neutro­phils, Lympho­cyctes, Monocytes, Eosino­phils, Basophils. Leukocytes ~ There are 5 types of leukocytes organized into two classes. those are Agranular , which consists of lympho­cytes (20-25%) & monocytes (3-8%). Granular, which consists of basophils (.5-1%) neutro­phils (60-70%) & eosino­phils (2-4%)
Nucleus 2-5 lobes / Our bodies "­Bac­teria Slayer­s" / Initiate respir­atory bursts to kill bacteria / Produce antibo­tic­-like proteins called defensins
Large single, dark purple, mostly made of lymph tissue. T-cells- AcT against virus-­infecTed cells & Tumor cells. Thymus- immuno­com­pet­enc­e/m­ature. B-cells- Become plasma cells which produce antiBodies ; Bone marrow- immuno­com­pet­enc­e/m­ature
Dark purple kidney or U-shaped nuclei. Largest leukocyte. Leave circul­ation and enter tissue- turn to macrop­hages. Activate lympho­cytes from immune response by releasing cytokines.
Red-st­aining, bi-lobed. Digest parasitic worms. Lessen the severity of allergies.
Rarest WBCs. U or S-shaped. Contain large purpli­sh-­black granules. Histamine (vasod­ilator) & heparin (antic­oag­ulant) attracts other WBCs to inflamed sites & bronch­oco­nst­riction
Normal ph range for blood
Response to injury­/he­mos­tasis
Stoppage of bleeding. 1~Vascular Spasm 2~ Platelet Plug 3~Coag­ulation
Thromb­ocytes (Plate­lets)
Megaka­ray­ocy­te-­Cyt­opl­asmic cell fragments. Form a temporary plug to seal vessels
Leukocytes (WBC’s)
Are complete cells (They have a nucleus and organe­lles)
Erythr­ocytes (RBC’s)
Mature RBC’s have no nuclei or organelles (live approx. 120 days)
Too few RBCs (anemia)
Erythr­opo­ietin (EPO)
Direct stimulus for erythr­opo­eisis Released by kidneys in response to “hypoxia”
Hemato­poiesis (Hemop­oiesis)
is the prolif­eration and differ­ent­iation of the formed elements of blood origin­ating from a Hemocy­toblast (stem cell).
excess RBCs > inc blood viscosity > heart attack or stroke. Polycy­themia vera~Bone marrow cancer due to a gene mutation. Secondary polycy­themia~less O2 available or inc EPO. Blood doping~(excess blood transf­usions)
cancerous conditions of abnormal production (increased #) Leukemias are named according to the abnormal WBCs involved Myelocytic leukemia~involves myelob­lasts Lympho­cytic leukemia~involves lympho­cytes (Acute: quickly develo­ping; primarily affects children Chronic: slow to develop; more prevalent in older people)
Location of Hemato­poiesis
Red Bone Marrow
Most abundant protein

APTM Heart sounds

Blood Types

Heart Valves



Systole/ Diastole
Systole~ Contra­ction of the heart muscles. Diastole~ Relaxation of the heart muscles
Papillary Muscles
Contract & generate tension on chordae tendineae
Cardiac Reserve
Difference between resting and maximal cardiac output
Angina Pectoris
Pain due to deficient blood supply to the myocar­dium. Caused by transient stress­-in­duced spasms of coronary arteries, increased physical demands on the heart or arteri­osc­ler­osis. Cells are weakened.
Myocardial Infract
Hear Attack. Prolonged coronary blockage= prolonged lack of oxygen to the heart muscles= cardiac muscle cell death. These cells are AMITOTIC; replaced with non-co­ntr­actile scar tissue. May be repairable depending on the extent of the damage and time
Layers of the Heart
Epicardium aka visceral perica­rdium- visceral layer of the serous perica­rdium. Myocardium- Spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells held together by elastic & collagen fibers that form a dense network called the Fibrous Skeleton of the heart. Endoca­rdium innermost- Endoth­elial layer of the inner myocardial surface that is continuous with blood vessel linings. Creates a smooth surface for easy blood flow.
Contra­ction of the Heart
Sinoatrial node (SA Node-P­ace­maker) 60-100 beats/min. Atriov­ent­ricular node (AV Node) 40-60 beats/min. Atriov­ent­ricular (AV) bundles (Bundle of His) 0-40 beats/min Right and Left bundle branches 0-40 beats/min Ventri­cular Purkinje Fibers 0-40 beats/min
Lub/Dub sounds
Caused by the closing of heart valves. First Sound~ occurs as AV valves close and signifies beginning of systole (contr­act­ion). Second Sound~ occurs when SL valves close at the beginning of ventri­cular diastole (relaxed)
Pathway of blood through Heart (Pulmonary circuit)
Right atrium­-tr­icuspid valve-­right ventri­cle­-pu­lmonary semilunar valve-­pul­monary arteri­es-­Lun­gs-­pul­monary veins-left atrium
Pathway of blood through Heart (Systemic circuit)
Left atrium­-bi­cuspid (mitral) valve-Left ventri­cle­-aortic semilunar valve-­aor­ta-to the body-vena cavas-­right atrium
Isovol­umetric contra­cti­on/­rel­axation
isovol­umetric Contra­ction~ All 4 valves are closed. Atria relax; ventricles contract (0.3 seconds) Isovol­umetric Relaxation~ All 4 valves are closed. Occurs in early diastole. Ventricles relax. Backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk closes semilunar valves. Quiescent period (0.4 seconds)
Ventri­cular Filling
Takes places mid-to­-late diastole. Atrial contra­ction (0.1 seconds). AV valves are open. 80% of blood passively flows into ventri­cles. Remaining 20% delivered with atrial systole. Heart blood pressure is low as blood enters atria and flows into ventri­cles.
Develo­pment aspects of the heart
Fetal heart structures that bypass pulmonary circul­ation. Forman Ovale~ connects the two atria. After birth this closes and becomes the Fossa Ovalis. Ductus Arteriosus~ connects pulmonary trunk and the aorta. After birth this closes and becomes the Ligamentum Ateriosum
Cardiac Output Equation
CO= SV (Stroke Volume) X HR (Heart Rate) If HR or SV goes up so does CO; same is true for going down
Stroke Volume Equation
SV= EDV (End Diastolic Volume) - ESV (End Systolic Volume) EDV~ amount of blood collected in a ventricle during diastole (120ml) ESV~ amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contra­ction (50ml) Average Stroke Volume~ 70ml
Sympat­hetic neuron activation releases Norepi­nep­hrine
Parasy­mpa­thetic fibers in the vagus nerves release Acetyl­choline. If vagus nerves are cut= inc HR by ~ 25 bpm (THIS IS CALLED VAGAL TONE)
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
The heart is a "­double pump" and each side can initially fail indepe­ndently of the other. LEFT SIDE~ Pulmonary conges­tion~ blood backing up into the lungs > pulmonary edema. Can lead to suffoc­ation. RIGHT SIDE~ Peripheral Conges­tion~ blood backs up at the tissue level > edema in the extrem­ities. Can lead to tissue hypoxia.
Commotio Cordis
Often lethal disruption of heart rhythm that occurs as a result of a blow to the area directly over the heart, at a critical time during the cycle of a heart beat causing cardiac arrest. It is a form a ventri­cular fibril­lation, not mechanical damage to the heart muscle or surrou­nding organs, and not the result of heart disease.
Normal blood pressure in Pulmonary Trunk
24/8 mmHg

Blood Vessels

Always carry blood away from the heart; oxygenated except for pulmonary circul­ation and umbilical vessels of fetus. ARTERIOLES~Smallest arteries; lead to capillary beds. Control blood flow into capillary beds via sympat­hetic nervous system vasoco­nst­riction (increased release of norepi­nep­hrine) and vasodi­lation (decreased release of norepi­nep­hrine)
Always carry blood toward the heart; deoxyg­enated except in pulmonary circul­ation and umbilical vessel of fetus
Special adapta­tions to ensure return blood: Large-­dia­meter lumens: offer little resistance to blood flow Valves prevent backflow of blood Varicose veins and hemorr­hoids are the result of incomp­etent valves (valve failure).
Contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs. Smallest blood vessels (micro­sco­pic). Walls consisting of thin tunica intima, one cell thickness. Diameter only allows a single RBC to pass at a time. Function: exchanges of gases, nutrients, and metabolic wastes between tissue and blood.
Neurot­ran­smitter released by Sympat­hetic and Parasy­mpa­thetic
Sympat­hetic~ NE-Nor­epi­nep­hrine Parasy­mpa­thetic~ACH-A­cet­ylc­holine
Antidi­uretic Hormone (ADH) effects of blood pressure
released when BP falls very low causes intense vasoco­nst­riction >> inc BP Also stimulates kidneys to conserve water
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Equation
pressure that propels blood through tissues. MAP=Di­ast­olic+ Pulse Pressure/3 (Example BP of 110/70 MAP=70­+11­0-70/3)
Renin-­ang­iot­ensin and effects of Angiot­ensin II and Aldost­erone
Renin-­ang­iot­ensin has a major effect on the cardio­vas­cular system. Renin is an enzyme, although some sources identify it as a hormone. Renin converts the plasma protein angiot­ens­inogen which is produced by the liver, into its active form angiot­ensin I. angiot­ensin I circulates in the blood and is then converted into angiot­ensin II in the lungs. Angiot­ensin II is a powerful vasoco­nst­rictor, greatly increasing blood pressure. It also stimulates the release of ADH and aldost­erone. (Angio­tensin II~ released in low renal prefusion (decreased BP). Kidney are stimulated to release of renin which generates angiot­ensin II. Initially creates vasoco­nst­riction (short term)>­>inc BP. Long term >> stimulates aldost­erone and ADH release>>inc blood volume­>>inc BP)
Blood pressure Equation
BP= CO (Cardiac Output) X PR (Perip­heral resist­ance)

Blood Pressure Chart

Blood Comp



Very comprehensive and straight to the point, I'm using this for an upcoming exam instead of going through 100 slides for the last 3 weeks of school. Thank you for your time and effort in making this for people like me!

Very comprehensive and straight to the point, I'm using this for an upcoming exam instead of going through 100 slides for the last 3 weeks of school. Thank you for your time and effort in making this for people like me!

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