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Feedback and Techniques Cheat Sheet by

This Cheat Sheet contains the definition of FEEDBACK, recommendations, techniques to give feedback, the meaning of positive and negative feedback.


Feedback is the inform­​ation provided to the student by the teacher in order to explain the results of a specific task, project, or dynamic that was performed in the classroom.


Students receive feedback on what they did effect­ively, what they did well, what they did really good, and what they could improve on. It's an important element of the education, and most students look forward to it. This can be classified into two groups: positive and negative.

Positive and Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

Positive feedback has two principal functions: to let students know that they have performed correctly, and to increase motivation through praise.

Negative Feedback

Negative feedback consists exclus­ively of the teacher repeating the student's response with a rising intona­tion. All students, even low profic­iency students such as the ones taking part in this lesson have no trouble recogn­izing this as a phonol­ogi­cally marked cue indicating that an incorrect response has been given.


Tech­niques for giving feedback

1. Ask-Te­­ll­-Ask:

- Ask learners for self-a­sse­ssment.
- Tell them the behavior /perfo­rmance you observe and how it differs from what you expect.
- Ask learners what they think they could improve and what actions they can take.

2. Sandwich:

- Praise for their strengths and areas of good perfor­­mance.
- Tell them the behavior /perfo­rmance you observe and how it differs from what you expect.
- Praise their ability to adapt and modify and use example where they have adapted and modified behavior in the past succes­sfully.

3. Bridge:

Connecting concepts together from past to future.
Focusing on:

- Past positive behavior /perfo­rmance.
- Present observed behavior /perfo­rmance.
- Future behavior /perfo­rmance expected.

Types of Feedback

– Praise
It motivates students and creates a positive atmosp­­here.

– Correction
It is typically done in the target language and helps to motivate students.

– Advice and encour­agement
Tell students what they can do to help themse­­lves.

– Evaluation / assessment
Way to measure the students’ success.


1. Feedback should be educative in nature.
2. Feedback should be given in a timely manner.
3. Be sensitive to the individual needs of the student.
4. Ask the 4 questions.
5. Feedback should reference a skill or specific knowledge.
6. Give feedback to keep students ‘on target’ for achiev­ement.
7. Host a one-on-one confer­ence.
8. Feedback can be given verbally, non-ve­rbally, or in written form.
9. Concen­trate on one ability or skill.
10. Have the student take notes.
11. Educate students on how to give feedback to each other.
12. Use a notebook to keep track of student progress.
13. Return tests, papers, or comment cards at the beginning of class.


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