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Glycolysis Cheat Sheet by


A.Low O2 and B.Normal


Glycolysis Is an Energy­-Co­nve­rsion Pathway in Many organisms
The Glycolytic Pathway Is Tightly Controlled
Glucose Can Be Synthe­sized from Non-ca­rbo­hydrate Precursors
Glucon­eog­enesis and Glycolysis Are Recipr­ocally Regulated


the sequence of reactions that metabo­lizes one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate with the concom­itant net production of two molecules of ATP.
Glycolysis is an ancient pathway employed by a host of organisms.
This process is anaerobic (i.e., it does not require O2), in as much as it evolved before the accumu­lation of substa­ntial amounts of oxygen in the atmosp­here.
Pyruvate can be further processed anaero­bically to lactate or ethanol.
Under aerobic condit­ion­s(need O2), pyruvate can be completely oxidized to CO2, generating much more ATP.
Position of glycol­ysis: cytoplasm

Some fates of glucose


Glucose generated from dietary Carboh­ydrates


Stage 1: conversion of glucose into fructose 1,6-bi­sph­osp­hate, and cleavage into two three-­carbon fragments;
stage 2: ATP is generated when the three carbon fragments are oxidized to pyruvate.

Stage 1

Stage 2


Diverse fates of pyruvate

10 steps of Glycolysis

Signif­icance of glycolysis

Fermen­tations provide usable energy in the absence of oxygen
- obligate anaerobes: Clostr­idium tetani (破傷風杆菌), Clostr­idium botulinum (肉毒杆菌)
- intense exercise
- food industry: sour cream, yogurt, various cheeses, beer, wine, and sauerkraut

Mainta­ining redox balance

The NADH produced by the glycer­ald­ehyde 3-phos­phate dehydr­ogenase reaction must be reoxidized to NAD+ for the glycolytic pathway to continue. In alcoholic fermen­tation, alcohol dehydr­ogenase oxidizes NADH and generates ethanol. In lactic acid fermen­tation (not shown), lactate dehydr­ogenase oxidizes NADH while generating lactic acid.

Glycolysis of other hexoses



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