Nature of Science: 15 questions, 12%
Vector 
magnitude NO direction Ex= speed, distance 
Scalar 
magnitude & Direction. Ex= acceleration, displacement 
Significant Figures 
all digits after the first nonzero are significant 

ex: 0.00410 3 sig figs, 23840100 6 sig figs 

leading zeros don't count 

adding round to # with the fewest decimals 
Accuracy 
ex:how close results are to the true value 
Precision 
how close results are to one another 
Systematic Error 
consistent error 
Acceleration 
v/t 
1/2gt^{2} 
Weight 
W=mg=mass X gravity 
Work 
W=Force x distance 
Matter and Energy: 19 questions, 15%
Bohr model 
electrons move in fixed orbitals (shells) and not anywhere in between and that each orbit (shell) has a fixed energy 
Particles 
alpha= 2p,2n bound 
beta=high energy, high speed electrons 
gamma=shortest wavelength electromagnetic waves 
Fission 
breaks 
releases energy ex. atom smashing 
Fusion 
combines 
releases energy ex. sun 
Energy transfer 
radiation= emitted 
conduction= touch 
convection= fluids 
Thermodynamics 
1st law= conservation of energy 
2nd law= entropy increases 
3rd law= A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy 
Ideal Gas Law 
Boyle's law PV=nRT 
pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship 
Kinetic energy 
energy of motion 
=1/2mv^{2} 
Potential energy 
stored energy 
=mgh 
PE=KE 
mgh=1/2mv^{2} 
mgh=1/2mv+ mg(2R) 
ME= KE + PE 
velocity b4 impact: square root (2gh) 
Waves: 21 questions, 17%
Transverse waves 
motion in which all points on a wave oscillate along paths at right angles to the direction of the wave's advance. Ex Water ripples 
Longitudinal waves 
vibration of medium is parallel to the direction the wave travels and displacement of the medium is in the same direction of the wave propagation. Ex: sound 
Mechanical waves 
an oscillation of matter, and transfers energy through a material medium. ex: sound, water 
Electromagnetic 
formed when an electric field couples with a magnetic field. ex. light, gamma 
Compression waves 
the particle motion is in the same direction in which the wave is propagating i.e. longitudinal 
Doppler effect: 
the change in the frequency of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave 

moving away= longer 
towards=shorter 
Sound 
Sonic boom= shock waves created when an object travels through the air faster than the speed of sound 

sound barrier sudden increase in aerodynamic drag that happens when an object approaches the speed of sound 

Pitch=frequency 
Loudness=intensity 
Waves pt 2: 21 questions, 17% (copy)
Snell's law: 
relationship between angles of incidence & refraction 

refraction= the bending of light or sound as it passes through something like a wall (sound) or a window (light). 

reflection= the throwing back without absorbing it. 

n1sin01 = n2sin02 
change in direction 
Optics 
real image= occurs where rays converge 
virtual image= rays only appear to diverge 

Polarization= division into two sharply distinct opposites 
Lenses 
converging= both sides of the lens curve outward it will bend light from distant objects inwards toward a single point, called the focal point 

convex=refract and converge 

further from lens the bigger the object appears 

diverging=both sides of the lens curve inward and light from distant objects will bend outwards. 

concave=refract and diverge, always smaller 

+ behind lens 
 in front of lens 

more lenses,  the focal length 


Mechanics: 44 questions, 35%
Newton's 1st 
law of inertia: objects at rest remain at rest 
Newton's 2nd 
F=ma: the greater the mass the more force needed to accelerate 
Newton's 3rd 
every action has an equal and opposite reaction 
Kepler's 1st 
all planets move in an elliptical orbit around the sun 
Kepler's 2nd 
planets will move slowly far away from the sun, and faster closer to the sun 
Kepler's 3rd 
the square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the axis of the orbit. 
Friction 
force that resists the sliding/rolling of a solid object over another 
Bernoulli's principle 
an increase in speed of a fluid simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's PE 
Uniform circular motion 
centripetal acceleration, net force is directed to the center 

increasing radius decreases force 

F=m(v^{2}/r)cos0 
Rotational motion 
motion of an object around an axis. w=0/t 
Harmonic motion F = kx 
Hooke's law the force exerted by a spring is proportional to its length 
Collisions 
elastic momentum conserved ex. pool balls move apart 

inelastic momentum not conserved ex. 2 cars stuck together, move together 
Centripetal force 
increase radius, decrease the force. F=m(v^{2}/r)cos0 
Bouyant force F = pgV 
the upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid 
Displacement 
D=VT=velocityXtime 
Vectors 
add or subtract by placing tip to tail 
Pascal's principle 
The pressure at any point in the fluid is equal in all directions. 

pressure input = pressure output 
modulus 
bulk= reaction to squeezing 

elastic= ratio of stress to strain 

young= elasticity and length 

shear= elasticity and stress 
Pendulums 
Time=2pi(square root (length/gravity)) 

freq (displacement) = amplitude sin (ang freq * t) 
Electricity & Magnetism: 26 questions, 21%
Coulomb's law F = k(q1q2)/r^{2} 
the force of attraction/repulsion between 2 charged bodies is proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 
Conductors 
allows the movement of electrons and ions through. Ex. copper, gold, silver, steel, aluminium & brass 

have moveable charges 
Insulators 
don't allow electric current to pass through, electrical resistance. Ex. glass, plastic, rubber, air, & wood 
Ohm's law V = IR 
the relationship between voltage, current & resistance in an electrical circuit. 
BiotSavart law 
describes the magnetic field generated by a constant electric current 
Lorentz force 
combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. to determine the direction of the magnetic force on a positive moving charge, point right thumb in the direction of the velocity (v), index finger in the direction of the magnetic field (B), and middle finger will point in the direction of the the resulting magnetic force 
Ampere's law 
the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element will be equal to the permeability times the electric current. 
Lenz's law 
direction of the electric current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field, the magnetic field created by the induced current opposes changes in the initial magnetic field 
Kirchoff's laws 
sum of all currents entering a junction must equal the sum of all currents leaving the junction 
Electric field 
the electric force per unit charge 
Electric potential V = k(q/r) 
amount of work energy needed per unit of electric charge to move the charge from a reference point to a specific point in an electric field 

the stronger the field= more potential 
I=V/R 
V=IR 
R=V/I 
Series 
one path 
Rt=R1+ R2+R3.... 

It= I1 =I2 
Vt = V1 + V2 
Parallel 
many paths 
1/Rt=1/R1+1/R2... 

It = I1 + I2 
Vt = V1 =V2 

decrease resistance= decrease length, increase radius 

total resistance is less than individual 
Gauss's law 
how much of something is INSIDE a completely closed surface by measuring how much is flowing out through the sides of that surface. 

the electric flux Φ across any closed surface is proportional to the net electric charge q enclosed by the surface 
Magnetic field 
F= qvB sin 0, where q is the magnitude of the charge, B is the magnitude of the magnetic field, v is the speed, and is the angle of the velocity with respect to the field. As increases from 0° to 90°, the force increases. 

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