Show Menu
Cheatography

Paper 3 Psychologists Cheat Sheet by

A brief explanation for psychologists in the following units: issues and debates, relatioinships, schizophrenia, aggression.

Issues and Debates

FREUD
alpha bias e.g. (theory of moral develo­pment), psychic determ­inism e.g. (uncon­scious conflicts repressed in childhood)
MILGRAM
beta bias e.g. (only male partic­ipants)
VAN IJZEN­DOORN & KROON­ENBURG
consider culture in conclusion
AINSW­ORTH
strange situation = ethnoc­entric, imposed etic
DESCA­RTES
born equipped with unders­tanding of key concepts
LOCKE
tubula rosa (blank slate)
GESTALT psych­olo­gists
whole greater than the sum of it's parts
RADFORD & KIRBY
general principles of laws
SKINNER
establ­ishing principles e.g. (operant condit­ioning)
EYESENCK
establ­ishing dimens­ioins e.g. (perso­nality measur­ement)
RAINE
e.g. of social sensit­ivity

Issues and Debates Evaluation

BOWLBY
attachment research conducted on mothers => conseq­uences
TAKANO & OSAKA
comparing USA & Japan
AINSW­ORTH
attachment types = culturally relative
EKMAN
facial expres­sions universal
SOON et al
press button? know 10 secs before aware

Relati­onships

ALTMAN & TAYLOR
social penetr­ation theory
DION et al
attractive people ratedas kind, strong & successful
WALSTER et al
matching hypothesis
KERCK­HOFF & DAVIS
filter theory
THIBAULT & KELLEY
social exchange theory
WALSTER et al
equity theory
RUSBULT
investment model
DUCK
phase model
SPROULL & KIESLER
reduced cues theory
WALTHER
hyperp­ersonal model
MCKENNA & BERGH
absence of gating
MALTBY et al
levels of parasocial relati­onships
MCCUT­CHEON
absorp­tio­n-a­ddi­ction model
BOWLBY
attachment theory explan­ation (early attach­ment)
AINSW­ORTH
attachment theory (insec­ure­-re­sis­tan­t=more likely)

Relati­onships Evaluation

BUSS
survey -> emphasis on charac­ter­istics diff. between males and females
CLARK & HATFIELD
q: 'i find you attrac­tive, would you go to bed with me tonight?'
SINGH
0.7 waist to hip ratio indicates fertility
MILLER et al
lap dance study
SPRECHER & HENDRICK
rel. satisf­action and self-d­isc­losure
TANG et al
china -> self-d­isc­losure less likely to => rel. satisf­action
DUCK
phase model
PALMER & PETERSON
physically attractive rated more politi­cally knowle­dgeable & competent
TOWHEY
sexist belief => more likely desire phy. att.
WALSTER et al
preferred more phy. att.
FEINGOLD
similarity between ratings of att. in actual couples
KERCK­HOFF & DAVIS
short and long-term importance in filters
WINCH
similarity typical to beginning attraction
LEVINGER
social change prevented replic­ation
ANDERSON et al
older partners = diff. filter order
CLARK & MILLS
exchange & communal rel.
WALSTER et al
equity theory
UTNE et al
survey, equitable = more satisfied
AUMER­-RYAN et al
cultural influences (indiv­idu­alistic & collec­tivist)
HUSEMAN et al
benevo­lents
LE & AGNEW
greatest commitment => most stable, long- lasting
RUSBULT
commited 'battered' women more likely return
GOODF­RIEND & AGNEW
invest in future plans
ROLLIE & DUCK
added resurr­ection
AKERT
person who initiates sufferers less
KELLIN
gender diff. in late phases
WALTHER & TIDWELL
non verbal cues not absent but diff.
PAINE et al
self disclosure depends on type of CMC
WHITTY & JOINSON
online q = more direct, intimate
MCKENNA & BARGH
lonely & socially anxious people able too express true selves
MALTBY et al
link: celebrity worship & body image in girls
MCCUT­CHEON et al
insecure attach­ments no more likely to form parasocial rel.
SCHMID & KLIMMT
similar attachment to Harry Potter in indivi­dualist & collec­tivist culture
 

Schizo­phrenia

GOTTE­SMAN
genetic similarity correlates with sz
RIPKE et al
108 separate genetic variations
JUCKEL et al
negative correl­ation between ventral striatum activity and overall negative symptoms
ALLEN et al
auditory halluc­ina­tions = lower superior temporal gyrus & anterior cingulate gyrus activity
FROMM­-RE­ICH­MANN
schizo­phr­eno­genic mothers
BATESON et al
double­-bind theory
FRITH et al
metare­pre­sen­tation, central control
PHARAOH et al
family therapy strategies
MEEHL
original diathe­sis­-stress model

Schizo­phrenia Evaluation

CHENIAUX et al
poor inter-­rater reliab­ility in diagnosing
ROSENHAN
being sane in insane places
COTTON et al
males diagnosed more often
BUCKEY et al
50% diagnosed with sz & depression
TIENARI et al
adopted children still at risk
MELTZER et al
clozapine more effective than typical
GOLDM­AN-­RAKIC et al
low dopamine in pre-fr­ontal cortex => sz
READ et al
69% women = history of abuse
JAUHAR et al
CBT = small signif­icance
PHARAOH et al
family theapy = moderately effective
TIENARI et al
diathesis = genes & trauma

Aggression

GOSPIC et al
ultimate game
MANN et al
dexenf­lur­amine
KLINE­SMITH et al
pellet gun/mouse trap => chilli sause
COCCARO et al
twin study -> concor­dance in physical agg.
RHEE & WALDMAN
adoption study -> genetic more prominent
BRUNNER et al
Brunner syndrome in Dutch family
TINBE­RGEN
stickl­eback fish models
WILSON & DALY
mate retention strategies
SHACK­LEFORD et al
correl­ation: men using retention strategies & women reporting violence
DOLLARD et al
frustr­ati­on-­agg­ression
GEEN
jigsaw puzzle
BANDURA
social learning theory
BANDURA et al
bobo doll study
ZIMBARDO
de-ind­ivi­duation -> part of crowd
PRENT­ICE­-DUNN & ROGERS
private & public self-a­war­eness
DODD
not respon­sible, do anything?
IRWIN & CRESSEY
dispos­itional explan­ation/ import­ation model
DELISI et al
juvenile delinq­uents imported diff. charac­ter­istics, correl­ation: played violent games & agg. behaviour
CLEMMER
situat­ional explan­ation/ depriv­ation model
STEINER
inmate violence more common with diff. types of people
BARTH­OLOW & ANDERSON
experi­ment: violent vs non-vi­olent game
ROBER­TSON et al
longit­udinal: TV = predict agg.
KRAHE et al
desens­iti­sation: arousal with violent or non-vi­olent film
FISCHER & GREIT­EMEYER
songs derogatory towrds women

Aggression Evaluation

RAINE
APD = less grey matter
RAYLEIGH et al
vervet monkeys - diet high in tryptophan
CASES et al
geneti­cally engineered mice
COOPER
FAP universal in pit vipers
NESBITT
southern US more agg. when insulted
BUSHMAN
vented agg. => more agg.
BERKO­WITZ
jealousy, pain & loneliness can => agg., frustr­ation creates readiness
PHILLIPS
increased violence in week following a major boxing match
JOHNSON & DOWNING
KKK most electric shocks, nurses least
GERGEN et al
dark room study
FRANCIS et al
internet violence
HARER & STEFF­ENS­MEIER
inmates: black-> violence, white-> drug abuse
DILULIO
admini­str­ative control model (ACM)
HENSLEY et al
allowed prison visits & sexual contact
PRZYB­YLSKI et al
complexity = confou­nding variable
FREUD
viewing agg. release agg. impulses
BERKO­WITZ & ALIOTO
film showing agg. as vengeance (justi­fied)
FISCHER & GREIT­EMEYER
negative lyrics against males

Help Us Go Positive!

We offset our carbon usage with Ecologi. Click the link below to help us!

We offset our carbon footprint via Ecologi
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Paper 2 Psychologists Cheat Sheet
          Paper 1 Psychologists Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by Lolly1025

          Paper 1 Psychologists Cheat Sheet
          Paper 2 Psychologists Cheat Sheet