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Stem Cells Cheat Sheet by

This cheat sheet mainly covers everything you need to know about stem cells. It includes the stem cell's characteristics, types, usage in medicine, etc...


1. Divide by mitosis to produce more cells.
2. Differ­entiate into different types of specia­lized cells.
NOTE: Mitosis is the process in which the nucleus and its contents divide. It contains four stages: Prophase - Metaphase - Anaphase - Telophase.

Risks of Usage In Medicine

Risk 1:
Virus Transm­ission
Risk 2:
Tumor develo­pment
NOTE: The virus may have already been in the donor stem cell or the cell might have gotten infected in the lab. A tumor may occur since there is a chance that the cells may get out of control once transp­lanted.

Main types of Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells:
Differ­entiate into any type of specia­lized cells
Adult Stem Cells:
Differ­entiate into different types of blood cells
NOTE: Embryonic stem cells can become ANY type of specia­lized cell including types of blood cells which is the only types of cells an adult cell can differ­entiate into. Thus, embryonic stem cells can be used to cure more sicknesses than adult stem cells.

The Ethical Objection

The Ethical Objection to using embryonic stem cells resolves around the fact that embryonic stem cells have the potential for human life making some people object their use in research and others to think the benefits of curing existing people who are suffering is more important than the right of embryos.

Drawbacks of using Embryonic Cells

1. Requires ONLY Embryonic cells which has a limited supply and is the only type of stem cell that can differ­entiate into any type of specia­lized cell.
2. Is sometimes rejected by the patients immune system and attempts to destroy the cells since it identifies it as "­for­eig­n".
NOTE: The risk of this happening can be reduced by giving the patient medica­tions; however, it does not always work.

Why the Immune System Accepts Adult Stem Cells?

NOTE: The ability for Adult stem cells to be taken straight from the patient is an advantage because this way the immune system will accept the cells unlike the embryonic cells being considered "­for­eig­n".

Advantages and Disadv­antages of Adult Stem Cells

Adult stem cells are a great altern­ative and have the ability of being taken straight from the patient so that they will not cause rejection.
Adult stem cells can only differ­entiate into different types of blood cells.

Inform­ation Resource + Video Link

The inform­ation provided in this cheat sheet is from "­Cog­nit­o" on YouTube. You can watch it here.


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