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AP Bio Unit 2 Part 1 Cheat Sheet by

Basic Cell Intro, Organelles, Origin of Life and Origin of Eukaryotic Cells

All Cells have ......

Plasma Membrane
Bound by selective barrier that allows passage of enough O, nutrients, and wastes for the entire cell
Cytosol
Semi-f­luid, jelly-like substance, where organelles are suspended
Chromo­somes
Gene ares carried in from of DNA
Ribosomes
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instru­ctions from DNA
Cytoplasm
place of Cytosol

Pro vs Eu

Prokaryote
Eukaryote
DNA is in nucleus, which is bound in nuclear envelope
DNA is concen­trated in a region called nucl­eoid
Evolved before Eu
Evolved after Pro
Very low amounts of Organelles
Many complex organelles
Much Smaller than Pro
Much Larger than Pro
Size relates to Func­tion

Plant vs Animal Organelles

Plant
Animal
Nucleus - nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin
Nucleus - nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin
Plasma Membrane
Plasma Membrane
Ribosomes
Ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
No Lyosome
Lyosome
Endopl­asmic Reticulum - rough ER, smooth ER
Endopl­asmic Reticulum - rough ER, smooth ER
No Flaggellum
Flaggellum
No Centrosome
Centrosome
Cytosk­eleton - microf­ila­ments, microt­ubules
Cytosk­eleton - microf­ila­ments, interm­ediate filaments, microt­ubules
No Microvilli
Microvilli
Peroxisome
Peroxisome
Mitoch­ondrion
Mitoch­ondrion
Chloro­plast
No Chloro­plast
Central Vacuole
No Central Vacuole
Plasmo­desmata
No Plasmo­desmata
Cell Wall
No CEll Wall
Eukaryotic Cells - extensive, elabor­ately arranged internal membranes that divide the cell into compar­tments
Compar­tments provide different local enviro­nments that support specific metabolic functions, so incom­patible functions can take place simult­ane­ously

Function of Organelles in Eukaryotes

Name
Function
Plant vs Animal
Nucleus
Contains most genes of eukaryotic cells
Both
Nuclear Envelope
Encloses the nucleus, separating its content from the cytoplasm. Is a double membrane made of a lipid bilayer
Both
Necleolus
associated with many proteins
Both
Chromo­somes
DNA's discrete units taht c arry genetic inform­ation, Each one contains one long DNA molecules soociate
Both
Chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins making up chromo­somes
Plasma Membrane
membrane enclosing teh cell
Both
Ribosomes
complexes that make proteins: free in cystosol or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope
Both
Golgi Apparatus
organelle active in synthesis, modifi­cation and secretion of cell products
Both
Lysosome
digesive organelle where macrom­ole­cules are hydrolyzed
Animal
Endopl­asmic reticulum
network of membranous sacs and tubes: active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
Both
Rough ER
is studded with ribosomes: Involved in the synthesis of proteins and also a membrane factory for the cell
Both
Smooth ER
not studded ribosomes: functions are the synthesis of lipids, steroid hormones, the detoxi­fic­ation of harmful metabolic byproducts and the storage and metabolism of calcium ions within the cell
Both
Flaggellum
motility structure composed of cluster of microt­ubules w/i an extension of the plasma membrane
Animals
Centro­somes
region where the cell's microt­ubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles
Animals
Cytosk­eleton
reinfores cell's shape: functions in a cell movement: components are made of proteins: includes microf­ila­ments, interm­ediate microf­ila­ments, and microt­ubules mainte­nance
Both
Microf­ila­ments
made of actin protein subunits: mainte­nnance of cell shape: changes in cell shape: muscle contra­dic­tion: cell motility: division of animal cells
Both
Interm­ediate Microf­ila­ments
mainte­nance of cell shape: anchorage of nucleus and certain other organe­lles: formation of nuclear lamina
Animals
Microt­ubules
mainte­nance of cell shape: cell motility like cilia or flagella: chromo­somes movements in cell division: organelle movements
Both
Microvilli
projec­tions that increase the cell's surface area
Animals
Peroxisome
organelle with various specia­lized metabolic functions: produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product and then converts it to water
Both
Mitoch­ondrion
organelle where cellur respir­ation occurs and most ATP is generated
Both
Central Vacuole
prominent organelle in older plant cells: functions include storage, breakdown of waste products, and hrdrolysis of macrom­ole­cules: enlarg­ement of the vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth
Plant
Chloro­plast
photos­ynt­hetic organelle: converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
Plant
Plasmo­desmata
cytopl­asmic channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
Plant
Cell Wall
outer layer that maintains cell's shape and protects cell from mechanical damage, made of cellulose, other polysa­cch­arides, and proteins
Plant
Endome­mbrane System
Nuclear Envelope, ENdopl­asmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, various vesicles and vacuoles, Plasma Membrane
Not all parts are in both types
Vesicles
small sac or cyst containing fluid or gas
Both
Vacuoles
a small cavity or space in the tissues of an organism containing air or fluid
Both

Origins of Life

Theory Name
Definition
Evidence
Abioge­nesis
life evolved from nonliving chemical systems
Oparin­-Ha­ldane hypothesis and Miller­-Urey Experiment
Hypo/Exp
Definition
Evidence
Oparin­-Ha­ldane hypothesis
life arose gradually from inorganic molecules, with “building blocks” like amino acids forming first and then combining to make complex polymers.
Miller­-Urey Experiment
Miller­-Urey experiment
organic molecules needed for life could be formed from inorganic components
Used a sparking device to mimic a lightning storm on early Earth. Their experiment produced a brown broth rich in amino acid
RNA world hypothesis
that the first life was self-r­epl­icating RNA
Scientists think RNA building blocks (nucle­otides) emerged in a chaotic soup of molecules on early Earth. These nucleo­tides bonded together to make the first RNAs. RNA store of genetic inform­ation, self-r­epl­icate, and act as a cellular catalyst
Metabo­lis­m-first hypothesis
metabolic networks before DNA or RNA
origin of life is triggered by the accumu­lation of very simple organic molecules in thermo­dyn­ami­cally favorable circum­sta­nces. Simple organic molecules can then be combined in various ways that result in simple amino acids, lipids, etc. These, in turn, could act as catalysts for the formation of more organic molecules. This is the beginning of metabo­lism.
Organic compounds came on meteorites
Simple organic compounds might have come to early Earth on meteor­ites.
One scientist tested this - used guns - samples had main organic acids - gun will stimulate pressures of comets - results = the amino acids had survived and transf­ormed into a compound - peptide molecules were formed. § One scientist tested this - used guns - samples had main organic acids - gun will stimulate pressures of comets - results = the amino acids had survived and transf­ormed into a compound - peptide molecules were formed. ○ Don Brownley - designed experiment to know of space had building blacks of life - commis­sioned former spy plane to collect space dust - discovered that these particles had seeds of life - but not only possible source of life - asteroids and meteoroids have building blocks for life - had amino acids (blocks of life) § Enough meteoroids - 70 kinds of amino acids found on them - delivered by comets - comments size of mountains that could have contained organic compounds
Life in Sea
life could have started in the oceans.
Yes - life is there despite scalding temper­atures and no sunlight, many typed of creatures are surviving here § Yes - life is there despite scalding temper­atures and no sunlight, many typed of creatures are surviving here

Origins of Eukaryotes

Theory Name
Definition
Evidence
Endosy­mbiotic theory
Eukaryotic cells are believed to have evolved from early prokar­yotes that were engulfed by phagoc­ytosis
Mitoch­ondrion and Chloro­plast have double meb=mb­arnecs, can reprodece in a fissio­n-like process, have their own DNA which is similar to prokar­yotic DNA, and has ribisomes similiar to prokar­yotes.
           

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