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Animal Nutrition Cheat Sheet by

animal nutrition intro bio 2

what do animals eat

herbivores
consume mainly plants and algae
carnivores
consume other animals
omnivores
consume animals as well as plants or algae

Digestive System

Alimentary Canal
 
mouth
 
pharynx
 
esophagus
 
stomach
 
intestine
 
anus
accessory glands
 
salivary glands
 
liver
 
gallbl­adder
 
pancreas
 

essential nutrients

four class of essential nutrients
-amino acids (~ from diet)
-fatty acids
-vitamins (small organic molecules)
-minerals (small inorganic molecules)
malnou­ris­hment
- lack of essential nutrients

How do animals eat?

specia­lized adapta­tions
 
dentition
 
intestinal adapta­tions
 
mutual­istic adapta­tions

Why do animals eat?

ATP needed for metabo­lism; generated by oxidation of glucose
glucose levels kept in balance by pancreatic hormones
-insulin & glucagon
glucose is stored in liver and muscle of glycogen
 

Stages of Eating

1. ingestion
2. digestion
3. absorption
high surface area
4. elimin­ation

Types of Ingestion

suspension feeder
whales- toothbrush like teeth
bulk feeder
humans and snakes
substrate feeder
caterp­illar
fluid feeder
mosquitoes

storage and release

overno­uri­shment
excess food energy; causes obesity
diabetes, colon/­breast cancer, heart attacks, strokes
many hormones involved in ingest­ion­/ap­petite
 

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