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Chapter 10

Patterns of Distri­bution
Widespread of plants and human activity known as biogeo­graphy
Total of plant and animal life
What is Flora; Fauna; Ocean Biota
Flora is plants­;Fauna are animal­s;Ocean Biota is planktons, nekton, Benthos
Flow of Energy
Sun is the source in which we depend
Food chain, and energy must be converted to be recycled
Net Primary Production
Total amount of chemical energy stored in plants ( Reflected in the dry weight of organic materials or biomass)
Hydrologic Cycles
Everything depends on water; Water dissolves nutrients and carries them all to parts of organism
Two Types of Hydrologic Cycles
Transit- Transp­ort­ation & Respir­ation. 2. Residence- To plant and animals
The Carbon Cycle
Contains complex mixtures of Carbon Compound
Main Components (CARBON CYCLE)
Transfer of carbon for oxygen (CO2) to living matter and back to CO2. It becomes a rapid process of years and not centuries
The Oxygen Cycle
Building block in most organic molecules by product of plant life, include H20, Carbon Dioxide, Ozone, CO2 stored in rocks
The Nitrogen Cycle
Limited amount of organisms can use nitrogen and it is known as nitrogen fixation.
Other Mineral Cycle
Critical to biosphere are phosph­orus, sulfur, and calcium.
Gaseous & Sedime­ntary Pathways
Gaseous is interc­hange between biota and atmosp­heric ocean enviro­nment. Sedime­ntary are elements weathered and reaches the ground­water, returned to the ocean and is consumed by ocean organisms
Food Chain-Who are the Producers
Plants are known as autotrophs also known as self feeders, and plants can be eaten by consumers also known as hetero­tro­phs.Pl­ant­-eating animal are called herbiv­ores, and are referred as primary consumers. Herbivores become food for other animals carnivores and are secondary consumers or also known as predators.
Who are the Omnivores
Humans because we eat both plants and animals therefore we have several roles on the food chain.
Food Pyramid
The consumer is the Apex do not conclude the pyramid because when they die they are fed to decomp­osers returning the nutrients to the soil to be recycled into another food pyramid.
Evolut­ionary Develo­pment
Survival of the fittest. Some localized, and several scattered localities of the same genus
Migrations and Dispersal
Animals move from one place to another, Plants move through seed dispersal.
Reprod­uctive Success
Heavy predation, climate change, food supply failure, changing enviro­nmental conditions
Extinction and die-off
Range diminu­tion; small area changes, and mass extinction
Plant Succession
One vegetation type replaces by another
Limiting Factor
most important variable for the survival of an organism
Influence of Climate Change­:Light
Green plants need light to survive, light changes shapes of plants. Photop­eri­odism stimulates seasonal plant behavior
Influence of Climate Change­;Mo­isture
Distri­bution of Biota governed more by moisture than any other factor. Biota evaluation dictated by adaptation to moisture condition
Influence of Climate Change­:Te­mpe­rature
Plants have a limited tolerance for low temper­ature, and different species can survive in different temper­atures
Influence of Climate Change­:Wind
Strong winds can be destru­ctive to biota
Topogr­aphic Influence
Slope and drainage, plants and animals in a plains region vastly different from a mounta­inous region
Can be helpful for regrowth and mainta­ining of plant type. Complete or partial destru­ction of plant and death or driving away animals.

Chapter 13

The Crust
Can be known as Moho,
The Mantle
The largest of the four shells.
The Mantle Sub Layers
Lithos­phe­re-­ove­rlying or oceanic or contin­ental crust
The Mantle Sub Layers
Asthen­osp­here- rocks are hot and can become tar
The Mantle Sub Layers
Lower Mantle- rocks are very hot because higher pressures
Outer Core
Molten extends 5000 KM
Inner Core
Primarily made of iron/n­ickel or iron/s­ili­cat­e.M­agnetic field of Earth controlled by outer core.M­agnetic poles not the same as the axial poles
Contin­ental Drift
Fit of the contin­ents, fossil evidence, rocky type and structure geology, paleoc­limatic evidence,
Be solid, found in nature, nonliving, contains atoms arranged in a regular pattern forming solid crystals
Composed of many minerals: solid rock found right at the surface is called outcrop
Bedrock and Regolith
Most of earths land area solid rock exists as a buried layer of bedrock and covered by a layer of broken rock called regolith
Igneous Rocks
Formed by the cooling and solidi­fic­ation of molten rock. Two Types: Putonic (Instr­uct­ive­)Su­rro­unding rocks insulate the magma intrusion, slowing cooling. Volcanic (Estru­cti­ve)­Gen­erally do not show individual mineral crystals, but can if the crystals are formed from shattered rock that was explos­ively ejected
Sedime­ntary Rock
Material transp­orted by water as sediment. Over long periods, large amounts of sediment build to large thickn­esses. Two Types: Clasti­cCo­mposed of fragments of preexi­sting rocks.C­he­mical and organic sedime­ntary rocks:­Organic sedime­ntary rocks such as coal form from remains of dead plants and animals
Metamo­rphic Rock
Rocks that were originally igneous or sedime­ntary and have been changed by heat and pressure. Two Types. Schist­:me­tam­orphic rocks with narrow foliat­ion­s.G­neiss – broad, banded foliations
The Rock Cycle
Processes where rocks can transition between the three rock types
Contin­ental and Ocean Floor Types
Ocean crust can be subducted into the atheno­sphere
recogn­ition of differ­ences between oceanic crust, contin­ental crust, and mantle
Internal and External Geomorphic Processes
Internal – originate from within Earth, increase relief of land surfac­e–E­xternal – originate from sources above the lithos­phere, such as the atmosphere or oceans; decrease relief of land surface
The present is the key to the past.P­roc­esses that shaped the landscape of the past are the same that will shape the future.Past thinking believed catast­rop­hism, catast­rophes shaped the land surface. (geolo­gical time)
The Pursuit of Pattern
Major landform assemb­lages of the world

Chapter 14

Who is Alfred Wegener
Revived the Contin­ental drift by shape, rock type, fossil assemb­lage, and Pangea,
Seafloor Spreading
Movement on ocean floor, push and pull, and it came above to be in 1968
Plate Boundaries Type 1
Divergent: Oceanic- Mid ocean rifts. Contin­ental- Rift Valleys
Plate Boundaries Type 2
Conver­gent: Contin­ental -Conti­nental : folded and faulted mounta­ins.Co­nti­nen­tal­Oce­ani­c:v­olc­anoes and accretion. Subduction melting, mild metamo­rph­ism.Oc­ean­icO­cea­nic­:Vo­lcanoes Island arc Deepest trenches in the world
Transform Boundaries
San Andreas: Lateral movement of land, Does not create or destroy, Earthq­uakes are very common
Hot Spots
Mantle Plume, stable over time
Massive volcanic activity, do not occur at plate boundaries
Ring of Fire
Subduction Zones: lots of Volcanoes, and lots of Earthq­uakes: Active volcanoes erupted within known history, Relative Time scale
Magma Chemistry
Determines character of eruption. Felsic: High Silica, lower temp, less viscous, holds gasses. Mafic -low silica, high temps, more viscous, low gas content, flow (Hawaii’s volcanoes) Interm­edi­ate­:qu­alities of both, generally explosive (Rainer)
Flood Basalts
Behave like Sedime­ntary rock, extensive area
Volcanic Forms: Shield Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes, Mafic magma, very large but not steep
Volcanic Forms: Composite Cones
Strato­vol­cano, Interm­ediate lava, Explosive, steep sides
Volcanic Forms: Lava Domes
felsic lava, bulge outward, grows by expansion
Volcanic Forms: Cinder Cones
produces mostly ash, associated with larger volcanic activity
Volcanic Forms: Calderas
Collapsed volcano
Volcanic gasses and flows
CO2 and H2SO4
Eruption Column and Ash Fall
Fine grained Silica­•Da­mages Lungs •Destroy motors •Icelandic Volcano 2010•D­isr­upted Airline travel over the north Atlant­ic•­Large Eruptions Alter climate
Pyrocl­astic Flows
Collapse of struct­ure­•Rapid downward movement of rocks and molten materi­als•Two parts•­Rocky base •Ash and gasses on top•Im­mediate Local Danger
Volcanic Mudsli­des­•Common on Glaciated Volcan­oes­•Melted Ice
Results from compre­ssion or extension of Earths Surface
Faulting Normal
Extension •Fault scarp forms
Faulting Reverse
Faulting Thrust
Low Angle
Faulting Strike­-Slip
Lateral displa­cement
Landforms Horst
Non displaced part of the fault block
Landforms Graben
Downthrown fault block
Landforms Rift Valley
Large areas of extension
Seismic Waves
P waves •Faster moving •Compress and Expand the medium •S waves •Damaging •Vertical and horizontal displa­cement of medium •Surface Waves •Effect of energy on the land surface •Epicenter located through tracking time between waves on various seismo­graphs
Magnitude and Intens­ities
Richter Scale •Local Magnitude Scale •Signi­ficant variations in force between values­•Sh­aking intensity •More of a qualit­ative measur­ement
Saturated Sediment •Trigger
Propag­ation of energy through the water •Can be caused by underwater landslides
Structure Failure
Lots of work done in designing structure for resiliency •Larger challenge in developing areas


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