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The Long Lost Art of Rhetoric


Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situat­ions.
Best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counte­rpart of both logic and politics, and calls it the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion
Source: Wikipedia

Aristo­tle's Rhetoric

Proof Types
The use of reasoning, either inductive or deductive, to construct an argument
The use of emotional appeals to alter the audience's judgment through metaphor, amplif­ica­tion, storyt­elling, or presenting the topic in a way that evokes strong emotions in the audience
How the character and credib­ility of a speaker can influence an audience to consider him/her to be believ­abl­e—there being three qualities that contribute to a credible ethos: perceived intell­igence, virtuous character, and goodwill
Types or Genres
AKA judicial, was concerned with determ­ining the truth or falseness of events that took place in the past and issues of guilt. An example of forensic rhetoric would be in a courtroom
AKA political, was concerned with determ­ining whether or not particular actions should or should not be taken in the future. Making laws would be an example of delibe­rative rhetoric
AKA ceremo­nial, was concerned with praise and blame, values, right and wrong, demons­trating beauty and skill in the present. Examples of epideictic rhetoric would include a eulogy or a wedding toast
AKA=Also Known As.
Aristotle view Rhetoric as counte­rpart of Dialectic. As a human art or skill (techne) Dialectic involves persuasion

Five Classical Canons of Rhetoric

The process of developing arguments
Determ­ining how to present the arguments
Organizing the arguments for extreme effect
Gestures, pronun­cia­tion, tone and pace used when presenting the persuasive arguments
Process of learning and memorizing the speech and persuasive messages
The Five Canons of Rhetoric serve as a guide to creating persuasive messages and arguments

Canon of Attic Orators (Classical Age)

389–314 BC
440–390 BC
480–411 BC
384–12 October 322 BC
Learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators
Tailored his style to be very audien­ce-­spe­cific. Not relying on attractive words but simple, effective prose. He used clauses to create patterns that would make seemingly complex sentences easy for the hearer to follow. His tendency to focus on delivery promoted him to use repeti­tion, this would ingrain the importance into the audience’s minds; he also relied on speed and delay to create suspense and interest among the audience when presenting to most important aspects of his speech. One of his most effective skills was his ability to strike a balance: his works were complex so that the audience would not be offended by any elementary language, but the most important parts were clear and easily understood
361–291 BC
390–322 BC
420-348? BC
436–338 BC
390–324 BC
445-380 BC
The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logogr­aphers of the classical era (5th–4th century BC). They are included in the "­Canon of Ten", which probably originated in Alexandria
Source: Live of Ten Orators http:/­/cl­ass­icp­ers­uas­ion.or­g/p­w/p­lu10or/

Great Orators (Roman & Middle Age)

Cicero 106–43 BC
The best known roman ancient orator and the only who both spoke in public and produced treatises on the subject.
Learn not only about the specifics of their case (the hypoth­esis) but also about the general questions from which they derived (the theses) . Gave rise to the idea that the "­ideal orator­" be well-v­ersed in all branches of learning: an idea that was rendered as "­liberal humani­sm,­" and that lives on today in liberal arts or general education requir­ements in colleges and univer­sities around the world
Quintilian 35–100
Began his career as a pleader in the courts of law. Organizes rhetorical study through the stages of education that an aspiring orator would undergo
Erasmus 1466–1536
Had consid­erable influence on the teaching of rhetoric in the later 16th century
Juan Luis Vives 1492–1540
It is likely that many well-known English writers were exposed to the works of Erasmus and Vives
Francis Bacon 1561–1626
Contri­buted to the field in his writings
Thomas Hobbes 1588–1679
Promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly
Hugh Blair 1718 – 1800
Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres saw intern­ational success in various editions and transl­ations

Great Orators (Modern Age)

Chaïm Perelman.
Move rhetoric from the periphery to the center of argume­ntation theory. Among their most influe­ntial concepts are "­dis­soc­iat­ion­," "the universal audien­ce,­" "­qua­si-­logical argume­nt,­" and "­pre­sen­ce."­
Kenneth Burke
He described rhetoric as "the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooper­ation in beings that by nature respond to symbols
Edwin Black
Altern­ative types of discourse
Marshall McLuhan
"The medium is the messag­e" highlights the signif­icance of the medium itself. Widely publicized in the 20th
I. A. Richards
Introduced the influe­ntial concepts tenor and vehicle to describe the components of a metaphor
The Groupe µ
This interd­isc­ipl­inary team has contri­buted to the renovation of the elocutio in the context of poetics and modern lingui­stics
Stephen Toulmin
Models of argume­ntation have had great influence on modern rhetorical theory
Richard Vatz
Agent-­focused perspe­ctive
Richard M. Weaver
He focused on the ethical implic­ations of rhetoric

Author: Jorge Juan

Ver. 1.0 April 2017


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