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AP Biology Unit 5: Animal Physiology Cheat Sheet by

Ch 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function; Ch 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling; Ch 43: The Immune System; Ch 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System

Types of Tissues

Epithelial
covers outside of body, lines inner organs & cavities
Connective
binds & supports other tissues (colla­genous, reticular, & elastic fibers)
Muscle
body movement; skelet­al=­vol­untary, cardia­c+s­moo­th=­inv­olu­ntary
Nervous
senses stimuli & transmits signals as nerve impulses

Mainta­ining Homeos­tasis

Thermo­reg­ulation
ectoth­erm­s=w­armed externally
endotherms=warmed by metabolism
poikilotherm=temp varies w/environment
homeotherm=relatively constant temp
-insulation, vasodi­lation, vasoco­nst­ric­tion, sweating, thermo­gen­esis, behavior
Osmore­gul­ation
manages water/­solute concentration
regulate urine concen­tra­tio­n/a­mount

Hormones

hormone
molecule secreted into extrac­ellular fluid that circulates in blood/­hem­olymph, & commun­icates regulatory messages
endo/e­xo-­crine glands
ductle­ss/­duc­t-h­aving organs that secrete substances
local regulators
secreted molecules that act over short distances & reach target cells by diffusion (cytok­ines, growth factors, NO, prosta­gla­ndins)
pheromones
chemicals released into external enviro­nment for a species to commun­icate
 

Endocr­ine­/Ne­rvous System Coordi­nation

hypoth­alamus
integrates systems, initiates endocrine signaling from nerve info
pituitary gland
stores & secretes hormones from hypoth­alamus (anterior & posterior)
thyroid gland
thyroid hormone regulates bioene­rge­tics, maintains BP, HR, muscle, digestion

Hormone Pathway: Insulin

negative feedback= loop in which response reduces initial stimulus
type 1 diabetes= immune system destroys beta cells of pancreas
type 2 diabetes= failure of target cells to respond to insulin

Neurons

sensory, inter-, and motor neurons
 

Action Potentials

purple= depola­rized; green= refractory period; yellow= polarized

Nonspe­cific Immune Defense

Barriers
skin, mucus, cilia, stomach acid
Systems
-infla­mmatory response: histamineblood flowimmune cells destroy pathogens
-interferon: inhibits virus reproduction
-fever: bacterial growth, stimulates immune system

Specific Immune Defenses

Humoral Immune Response
B cells attack pathogens w/anti­bodies
Cell-M­ediated Response
T cells attack pathogens, cells w/path­ogens, & cancer cells by lysing them
                           

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