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Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Cheat Sheet by

HYPONA­TREMIA: Risk Factors

Medi­cat­ions
GI loss
Diuretics
SIADH
Antico­nvu­lsants
Adrenal insuff­iciency
SSRIs
NPO status
Lithium
Restri­cte­d-s­odium diet
Demecl­ocy­cline
Water intoxi­cation
 
Excessive diapho­resis

HYPONA­TREMIA: Manife­sta­tions

Weakness
Lethargy
Confusion
Seizures
Headache
Anoerxia
Nausea
Vomiting
Muscle cramps
Twitching
Hypote­nsion
Tachyc­ardia
Weight gain
Edema

HYPONA­TREMIA: Nursing Interv­entions

Sodium replac­ement (oral, GI tube, IV)
Restrict oral fluid intake
Weight the client daily
Monitor I&O
Medica­tion: Conivaptan hydroc­hloride

HYPONA­TREMIA: Notes

Risk with hypertonic solutions: cerebral edema
 

HYPERN­ATR­EMIA: Risk Factors

Dehydr­ation
GI loss
Hypera­ldo­ste­ronism
Hypertonic tube feedings
Diabetes insipidus
Kidney failure
Burns
Heatstroke
Cortic­ost­eroids

HYPERN­ATR­EMIA: Manife­sta­tions

Fever
Swollen, dry tongue
Sticky mucous membranes
Halluc­ina­tions
Lethargy
Restle­ssness
Irrita­bility
Seizures
Tachyc­ardia
Hypert­ension
Hyperr­efl­exia, twitching
Pulmonary edema

HYPERN­ATR­EMIA: Nursing Interv­entions

Daily weight
I&O
Seizure precau­tions
IV infusion of hypotonic or isotonic fluid
Diuretics
Dietary sodium restri­ction and education
Increased oral fluid intake

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