FLUID VOLUME DEFICIT
Fluid intake is less than needed to meet body requirements
The most common type is isotonic dehydration
Excess GI and/or renal loss
Long term NPO status
Aging: older adults have less body water and decreased thirst sensation
Dry mucous membranes
Increased HR & respirations
Capillary refill less than 3 sec
Poor skin turgor
LATE SIGNS: oliguria, decreased central venous pressure (CVP), flattened neck veins
Serum electrolytes, BUN, creatinine, Hct (can be high due to hemoconcentration)
Urine: specific gravity and osmolarity
Monitor vital signs, pulse quality & amplitude
Monitor skin turgor. In older adults, check skin over sternum or forehead.
Maintain strict I&O. Output should be at least 0.5 mL/kg/hr.
Weight pt daily
Monitor laboratory data
Correct underlying cause
Increase oral fluid intake. Initiate oral rehydration solution.
Maintain IV fluids for severe dehydration as prescribed
Monitor response to therapy
Initiate fall precautions