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Factors

Equator
Hottest area
Poles
Coolest Area
At the equator,
the sun rays hit the Earth at the 90 degrees
Latitude is the most important factor
High pressure = cool air
Low pressure = warm
Difference in pressure makes wind
Doldrums
air rises&co­ol:lots of precip­itation
Subtro­pical Highs
little precip­itation
45 to 60
greater precip­itation
Subpolar Lows
precip­itation is low
Specific heat
energy needed to change the temper­ature of 1g of a substance by 1 degrees Celsius
land heats up faster than ocean
land heats up more than ocean(­hotter)
ENSO
El Nino or El Nina
El Nino - every 3-10 years
warm-water phase, moist America, and dry Asia
temper­ature differ­ences between land and ocean causes...
the winds to shift seasonally
Monsoon
Summer: wind moves toward land Winter: Wind moves toward water
Temper­ature decreases as elevation increases
Rain Shadows
when air mass meets mountain, air mass rises (cools and dry) and falls back down (warm and dry)
Foehn
rain shadows of the Alps
Chinook
Rain shadows of the Rocky Mountains

Temper­ature and Precip­itation

Climate
average weather condition in are over long period of time
Daily average
(high + low)/2
Monthly average
(∑daily averag­es)/#of days
Yearly average
average the monthly averages
However, yearly temper­ature range is better
 

Climate Zones

Tropical Climates
Climate
Temp/P­rec­ipi­tation
Describe
Rainforest
small temp range; annual 200cm
lush vegetation with broadlp
Desert
large temp range; annual 25cm; no sibling
no vegetation
Savanna
small temp range; annual 50cm; altern­ative wet/dry
open grassland with drought-uk
Savanna
small temp range; annual 50cm; altern­ative wet/dry
open grassland with drought-uk
Middle Latitude
low tmep range; frequent rain
deciduous trees; forests
Marine West Coast
low tmep range; frequent rain
deciduous trees; forests
Steppe
large temp range; annual 40cm
drough­t-r­esi­stant vegetation and ome
contin­ental
large temp range;­<75cm
evergreen teas
subtro­pical
large temp range; annual is 75-165cm.
broadleaf and evergreen trees
Medite­rranean
low temp range; annual 40cm
broadleaf and evergreen; long summers
Polar
large temp range(­63C­);a­nnual 25-50cm
Evergreen Trees, brief, cool summers, long winters
Subartic
large temp range(­63C­);a­nnual 25-50cm
Evergreen Trees, brief, cool summers, long winters
Tundra
average temp is below 4C; annual 25cm
treeless plains; 9 months of temp below freezing
Polar Icecaps
average temp is 0C; low annual
little or no llife; temp is going to stay as below freezing.
Micr­ocl­imate
climate of a small area
vegeta­tion, elevation, proximity to water
Local Climates: Elevation
elevation increase, temper­ature decreases
Highland
Cities in the mountains or tropical areas
higher precip­itation
Local Climates: Water
precip­ita­tion, smaller temp range
higher precip­itation
 

Climate Change

Method
Measured
Indicated
time
ice cores
concen­tration of gases in ice and meltwater
CO2 indicate warm climate; ice ages follow decrease in CO2
hundreds of thousands of years
sea-floor sediment
concen­tration of 18O shells of micro organisms
High levels of 18O=cool water; less 18O = warm water
hundreds of thousands of years
Fossils
pollen type, leaf shape, animal body adapta­tions
flower pollens&broad=; pollens&waxy = ; animal fossils show changes to climate change
millions of years
Tree rings
ring width
thin = cool weather and less precip­itation
hundreds to thousands of years

Climate Change

General circul­ation models (GCM)
incorp­orate millions of pieces of data
GCMS simulate change in only one variable at a time
GCMS are prediction machines
Pote­ntial Cause of Climate Change
Plate tectonics
change in position of continents changes wind flow and ocean currents
Orbital Change
Milank­ovitch theory
Milank­ovitch theory­(Every 21,000­-10­0,000 years)
changes in Earth's orbit, tilt, and axis
Orbit
Elliptical to circular causes different distances from sun
Tilt
Decreases temper­ature difference between each season
Axis
changes tilt and reverses the seasons
Human Activity
pollution and burned trees
Volcanoes
erupts sulfur and ash; decreases temper­ature by reflecting sunlight into space
Pote­ntial Impacts
Global warming
dry: extinc­tion, crop suffer; ice poles melt: sea-level change
Sea-level change
Coastal cities are wiped out
What Can We Do?
Individual
Less energy usage
Transp­ort­ation
hybrid cars or consistent speed
 

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