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Infectious, Inflammatory, & Immunologic (Peds) Keyboard Shortcuts by

Nursing Care of the Child with an infectious, inflammatory disorders

Chain in Infection

Infection Agent
This infectious agent is any microo­rganism that is capable of producing an infection.
• Autocl­aving instru­ments destroys an infectious agent
Reservior Host
This is the place where the microo­rganism resides. it can be a food, water, or human source
• Elimin­ating water and refrig­eration of food
Route of Transm­ission
can be direct or indirect transm­ission which involves an interm­mediate
• washing of hands helps prevent transm­ission.
Suscep­tible Host
This is the person who is suscep­tible to an infection. A compro­mised host is a person at increased risk.
Portal of Entry
This is the place where the infectious agent enters the body
• A needle stick entry allows agent to enter host.
Portal of Exit
In order for an etiologic agent to establish an infection, the microo­rganism must leave the reservior.

Viral Infection | Parotitis

Parotitis
Mumps
Agent
Mumps virus
Incubation
14-21 days
Per. of com.
Shortly before & after onset of parotitis
Transm­ission
Direct & indirect contact.
Symptoms
fever, headache, anorexia, malaise
Treatment
Analgesic for pain and antipy­retic

Bacterial Infection | Helminthic

Helminths are pathogenic or parasitic worms
• Namatodes
Roundworms
• Trematodes
Flukes
• Cestodes
Tapeworms
Reservoir
eggs of feces or urine
Transm­ission
oral cavity by food or hands

Bacterial Infection | Parasitic

Organisms that live on and obtain their food supply. Frequently seen parasites in children are lice and scabies
Pedicu­losis capitis (Head lice)
Sx
Small, white flecks on hair shaft, Extreme pruritus
Treatment
Wash with shampoo, fine toothed comb
Pedicu­losis (Public lice)
Sx
Same as for head lice except on pubic hair
Treatment
same as head lice
Scabies (Female mite)
Sx
Black burrow filled w/ mite feces 1-2 in.
Treatment
wash area with lindane or permethrin
 

The Infectious Process

Pathogen any organism that causes disease:
Viruses, bacteria
ricket­tsiae
Helminths
Fungi
4 Phases or Periods
Incuba­tion: time between entry and onset of symptoms
Prodromal: time when person feels abnormal or weak
Illness: person feels typical symptoms.
Conval­escent: person recovers from the infection

Viral Infection | Enxanthem Subitum

Exanthem Subitum
Roseola infantum
viral infection of very young children that causes high fever followed by a rash. ages 6 mos to 3 yrs.
Agent
Human Herpes­virus-6 (HHV-6)
Incubation
Approx. 10 days
Per. of com.
During febrile period
Transm­ission
Unknown
Symptoms
high fever, rash develops
Treatment
measures to reduce discomfort

Viral Infection | Rubella

Rubella
German Measles
Affects older school age and adolescent
Agent
Rubella virus
Incubation
14 to 21 days
Per. of com.
approx 7-5 days after rashes appear
Transm­ission
Direct and indirect contact w/ droplets
Symptoms
fever, malaise, anorexia, conjuc­tiv­itis.
Treatments
reduce discomfort of rash & fever

Viral Infection | Rubeola

Rubeola
Measles (koplik's spot)
Sometimes called brown or black, regular or 7day measles to differ­entiate it from rubella. (german 3days)
Agent
Measles virus
Incubation
10-12 days
Per. of com.
5th day till the first few days of rashes
Transm­ission
Direst & indirect contact w/ droplets
Symptoms
fever, malaise, coryza, conjun­cti­vitis.
Treatment
reduce discomfort of rash and fever

Viral Infection | Varicella

Varicella
Chicken Pox
It causes an itchy rash with small, fluid-­filled blisters.
Agent
Varicella zoster virus
Incubation
10-12 days
Per. of com.
day before rash to 5-6 days after
Transm­ission
Direct & indirect contact.
Symptoms
fever, malaise, lesions, vesicle to crust
Treatment
antihi­sta­mine, antipy­retic, acyclovir
 

Viral Infection | Herpes Zoster

Herpes Zoster
Shingles
Once you have had chicke­npox, varice­lla­-zoster virus remains in your body's nerve tissues and never really goes away. Herpes zoster could be activated
Agent
Varicella zoster virus
Incubation
2-12 days
Per. of com.
day before rash to 5-6 days after
Transm­ission
Direct & indirect contact.
Symptoms
pruritus, cutaneous vesicular lesions
Treatment
acyclovir, analgesia for pain

Viral Infection | Variola

Variola
Smallpox
Agent
Smallpox virus
Incubation
7-17 days
Per. of com.
from onset of rash till crust shed
Transm­ission
Direct & indirect contact.
Prodromal
3-4 days of chills, fever, vomiting
Symptoms
macules, papules, vesicles & pustules
Treatment
VIG to suppress symptoms & antibi­otics

Viral Infection | Poliovirus

Poliovirus
Poliom­yelitis (infantile paralysis)
Agent
Polio virus
Incubation
7-17 days
Per. of com.
1-6 weeks. before onset of Sx
Transm­ission
Direct & indirect contact.
Symptoms
Fever, nausea, body pain, vomiting
Treatment
bed rest, analgesia, moist hot packs

Viral Infection | Rabies

Agent
Rabies virus
Incubation
2-6 weeks as long as 12 months
Per. of com.
3-2 days before onset of Sx
Transm­ission
Bite of rabid animals, saliva
Symptoms
hypere­xci­tab­ility, twitching, seizure
Treatment
Rabies vaccine and anti-r­abies serum

Bacterial Infection | Rickettsia

• A genus of small, rod-sh­aped, round to pleomo­rphic
• True bacteria, gram neg, cultivable in living tissues
Pathog­enesis
Replicate in endoth­elial cells, skin rash
Transm­ission
Transm­itted by lice, fleas, ticks, mites

Bacterial Infection | Fungal

Children fungi can cause superf­icial infection on skin, nails and hair like oral thrush
Superf­icial
on the skin
Subcut­aneous
Tissues under the skin
Systemic
in deeper tissues
                           
 

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