Show Menu
Cheatography

NB's Alterations in Oxygenation (Ventilation) Keyboard Shortcuts by

Nursing care of newborn's with alteration on oxygen ventilation.

Aspiration

Inhalation of a foreign object into the airway occurs most frequently in infants and toddlers
Signs & Symptoms
• Choking, hard, forceful coughing
• Increased respir­atory difficulty (stridor)
Management
• Subdia­phr­agmatic thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver)
• Stand behind the child & place fist under diaphramgm
• upside down with finger inside mouth, trust the back

Status Asthma­ticus

Recurrent diffuse, obstru­ctive pulmonary disease process caused by airway inflam­mation and hyperr­eac­tivity. Occurs when children fail to respond
Clinical Manife­station
• Wheezing changes as disease progresses
• Inspir­atory & expiratory wheeze: airways obstructed
• Little air movement heard (tight): complete obstru­ction
• Retrac­tions, hr & rr elevated, cyanosis, hypoxia
• Prolonged expiratory phase
Pathop­hys­iology
Smooth muscle spasm to mucosal edema leading to mucosal plugging causing obstru­ction, air trapping leading to hypoxemia
Nursing Care
• Aerosol admini­str­ation of a bronch­odi­lator (albut­erol)
• IV cortic­ost­eroids to reduce symptoms
• O2 by face mask or nasal prongs
• IV infusion for hydration
• Monitor I &O : measure the specific gravity of urine
• In severe attacks, ET intubation & mech. ve
Diagnostic Tests
• Chest radiog­raphy: detect foreign body, infilt­ration
• Lab test: evaluate degree of acidosis & infection
• Spirom­etry: to assess severity of disease
• Pulse oximetry: reveals the low oxygen sat level.
Extreme emergency because a child may die of heart failure caused by the combin­ation of: exhaus­tion, atelec­tasis, respir­atory acidosis from bronchial plugging.
 

Cystic Fibrosis

is a chronic, progre­ssive, and frequently fatal. Caused by abnorm­ality of chromosome 7 CFTR gene. genetic disease of the body's mucus glands. life span of 30 yrs
CF affects
Respir­atory
Increased mucus secretions
Digestive
Decreased pancreatic enzymes
Sweat glands
increase salt in sweat
Reprod­uctive
Infert­ility
Clinical Manife­station
• productive cough, wheezing, hyperi­nfl­ation of lungs
• Clubbing of extrem­ities, fat soluble defici­encies
• Malnut­rition, steato­rrhea, strong salt in perspi­ration.
Treatments
• Preventing and contro­lling lung infections
• Loosening and removing mucus from the lungs
• Preventing and treating intestinal blockage
• Providing adequate nutrition
Medica­tions
• Antibi­otics (genta­mycin)
• Mucus thinning drugs: cough up mucus
• Bronch­odi­lators: help keep the airways open
• Oral pancreatic enzymes: help absorb nutrients
Tests and Diagnosis
Sweat test
sweat saltier than normal
Genetic test
defect on chromosome 7
Imaging test
Damage to lungs or intestines
Function test
How much air, how fast, how well
Sputum culture
Analyzed bacteria
Organ func.
health of pancreas and liver

Laryng­otr­ach­eob­ron­chitis (Croup)

Pathop­hys­iology
• viral infection of parain­fluenza or H.infl­uenza causes swelling of the laynx, trachea, and large bronchi.
• Swelling due to infilt­ration of WBC causes airway obstru­ction thus, increased work of breathing. (stridor)
Signs & Symptoms
• Barking cough ( inspir­atory stridor )
• Marked retrac­tions, temp is mildly elevated
• Marked retrac­tions, hoarseness
• Difficulty breathing worsen at night
Nursing Care
• Assess airway obstru­ction by elev. respi status
• Provide warm, moist envi. & give 02 for hypoxia
• Cortic­ost­eroid (dexam­eth­asone or epinep­hrine
• IV therapy to keep child hydrated
• Keep emergency equipment (trach­eos­tomy, intuba­tion)
Health Teachings
• bath with hot water to produce steam
                                   
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Alteration on Oxy (cardiac acyanotic) Cheat Sheet
          at risk, high risk, and sick newborn Cheat Sheet
          Infectious, Inflammatory, & Immunologic (Peds) Keyboard Shortcuts

          More Cheat Sheets by Dan_Niel

          Alteration on Oxy (cardiac cyanosis) Cheat Sheet
          at risk, high risk, and sick newborn Cheat Sheet
          Alteration on Oxy (cardiac acyanotic) Cheat Sheet