Policemen were a unique symbol for britain = friendly bobby --> every police officer has it own beat. But in 1960 life became motorized. So did crime and so did the police.Police officers stopped being the good guy that they once were. They were dealing with alot of demonstrations and with the activities of the 1960s counterculture --> police officiers -->
bobbies fuzz, cops, pigs.
There is no national police force for biritain. All police employees work for one of the 50 forces, each with responsibility for a certain geopgraphical area.
MET --> more direct control on the polices. Certains national functions such as the registration of all crimes and criminals in England and Wales.
New Scotland Yard = the well known building which is the headquarters of its CID.
The police lost much of their positive image in the second half of the twenthieth centruy because trust in the honesty of the police declined
Aware of this problem, police invest much time and energy in public relations. --> Foot patrols , name-badges, not carrying guns.
Miscarriages of justice:
- The bridgewater four
- Cardiff Three
- M25 Three
Miscarriages of IRA:
- The Guildford Four
- The Birmingham Six
- Maguire Seven
The police cannot hold a person for more than 24 hours without formally charging this person with a crime (exception: terrorist suspect: 28 days without charge)
The fear of crime has increased:
1) The ability to catch criminals
2) Neigbourhood Watch Schemes
The system of justice in England and Wales is an adversarial system. That means that in criminal cases, it is not the business of any court to find out the truth. Its job is simply to decide yes or no to a particular proposition after is has heard arguments and evidence from both sides.
The civil justice has it own courts. All civil cases go trough country Courts & High Courts. Most of the cases are dealt in magistrates courts.
Magistrates are also known as : Justice of the Peace --> not trained lawyers! They are jut ordinary people with a good reputation who have been appointed to the job by a local committee and they do not get a salary or fee. When a JP says guilty, then they refer the case to a Crown Court, where a professional lawyer acts as the judge.
Jury = 12 selected people random fromt he list of voters. In order to reach a verdict, there must be agreement among at least ten of them. If this does not happen --> the judge has to declare a mistrial and the case must start all over again with a different jury.
It is also the judge's job to impose a punisment ( the pronouncing sentence) on those found guilty.A convicted person may appeal to the Court of Criminal Appeal in London to have the conviction quashed or to have the sentence reduced.
In Britain there a 2 types of lawyers:
2 ) Barristers
The highest court of all in Britain is the Supreme Court.
Beat = A particular neighbourhood which it was the policemens duty to patrol.
MET = Metropolitan Police
CID = Criminal Investigation Department
IRA = Irish Republican Army
NWS = Educating people in crime prevention to keep their eyes open for anything suspicious.
In the days when Britain ruled the waves, british people had a rather patronizing attitude towards people in other countires and their ways. But this attitude has dissapeared with the dismantling of the empire. These days, many foreign ways of doing things are admired and there is a greater openess to foreign influences.
Britain lost its empire in the second half of the 20th century BUT small remnants of it remain: e.g. Bermuda, Gibraltar, the Falklands/Malvinas etc.
* They all wish to continue with the imperial arrangement
* British government: these wishes cause pride but also embarrassment and irritation
o Pride: they suggest how beneficial the Br imperial administration must have been
o Embarrassment: because the possession of colonial territories doesn’t fit the image
of a modern democracy
o Irritation: it costs money
In 1982 the Br government spent hundreds of millions of pounds recapturing the Falklands from the invading Argentinians:
o Popular support at home
o Rare modern occasion of active patriotism (people felt here Britain was finally doing something right and doing it well)
Opinions about military interventions since then:
* 1990’s: Britain’s role in the Gulf War and in Balkan peacekeeping efforts
o Majority acceptance
o Little enthousiasm
* 2003: government’s decision to go to Iraq
o Provoked heated debate
o Provoked largest public demonstration
o Decision has been generally regretted
* Britain’s presence in Afghanistan
o Has also been unpopular
Britain's armed forces
Britain has a loyalty towards the government of the british armed forces.(proud)
The british military is divided into 3 branches:
1) The Royal Navy
2) The Royal Air Force
3) The Army
( Navy = oldest, king alfred, senior service)
Britain's role in world affairs
There is no general agreement on what Britain’s ‘commitments in the world’ are and on whose behalf they should be undertaken.
* Feeling in the country that Britain should be able to make significant contributions to international ‘peacekeeping’.
* Question about nuclear weapons
o Since the 1950s the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) has argued that Britain should cease to be a nuclear power, on economic and moral grounds
o But they don’t have consistent support
o Britain still has a nuclear force, although little in comparison to the USA
Relationship USA & UK
Public feeling about the relationship = ambivalent
o On the one hand: reassuring to be so diplomatically close to the most powerful nation in the world and the shared language gives people some sense of belonging with America
o On the other hand: some mild bitterness about the power of the USA, little distrust but remarks are often made about Britain being only a fifty-first state of the USA
* In any case: relationship declined since Britain joined the European Communities. The opening of the channel tunnel emphasized that Britain’s links are now more to Europe
* Also: tourist statistics: before the 1990’s: mostly American tourists in Britain, now the majority of visitors are from Europe
Ambivalent = having mixed feelings about someone or something
BRITISH ATTITUDE TOWARDS ITS MEMBERSHIP OF THE EU
Attitude = ambivalent
o One hand: as an economic necessity and a political advantage
o The other hand: acceptance has never meant enthusiasm
Dominant attitude: profound lack of enthusiasm, tends to be seen as a necessary evil
o Causes: The British sense of apartness
Results in the fact that EU laws and regulations are often viewed as interference by a ‘foreign’ organisation (according to some politicians and the media: these rules are a threat to the autonomy and independence of the UK) (according to the average person: threat to the British ‘way of life’)
News about EU regulations pertaining to everyday life and habits seems to irritate the British.
o Possible reason: the british tend to take laws and regulations seriously and to interpret them literally. Also they like to have as few laws and regulations as possible because they believe law should be applied consistently and precisely. But they see a lot of rules coming from Brussel.
o What is even worse is that many of the rules seem to be about standardization, what means restriction, boring uniformity and inconvenience to them!
Relations inside Great Britan
Before the 1980s: were happy to be part of the UK but there was always some resentment about the way they were treated by the central government in London
From the mid 1980s onwards: majority of the Scottish population wanted either selfgovernment within the UK or compete independence
A referendum decided in 1999 that the Scottish Parliament was reborn (300 years after it abolished itself). It has considerable powers over internal Scottish affairs
Future? The Scottish National Party, which wants complete independence from the UK, is now the largest party in Scottish Parliament, a majority of people see independence inevitable in the long run. The present arrangement puts pressure on the relationship between Scotland and England
Nationalism is felt mostly in the central and western parts of the country but not politically,
However: also a growing support of greater self-government
Great Britain & Northern Ireland
Catholic viewpoint = nationalist or republican: in support of the idea of a single Irish nation
and its republican government
Protestant viewpoint = unionist or loyalist: loyal to the union with Britain
AFTER THE PARTITION OF IRELAND IN 1920
Northern Ireland was given its own parliament and Prime Minister
Protestant majority had always had the economic power in the six counties
Internal self-government allowed them to take all the political power as well.
All the positions of power were always filled by Protestants
Catholic civil rights movement began and there was a violent Protestant reaction.
In 1969 British troops were sent in to keep order
o At first: welcomed by the Catholics
o But troops often act without regard to democratic rights and sencibilities
o Violence increased
o British government imposed certain measures which are not normally acceptable in
a modern democracy
o Welcome disappeared entirely after 30 January 1972 (Bloody Sunday, troops shot dead 14 unarmed Catholic marchers)
o Extremist organisations and acts of terrorism increased (IRA started a bombing campaign on the British mainland while Loyalist paramilitaries started committing terrorist attacks in the Republic of Ireland
o Result: British government imposed direct rule from London. There was a hardening of attitudes in both communities and support for extremist parties increased
First important step towards resolution: Good Friday Agreement of 1998: gave the Republicof Ireland a small degree of power sharing and everybody born in Northern Ireland the right to be a citizen of the Republic. Also it said that the 6 counties will remain part of the UK as long as the majority of its people wanted to.
But sporadic violence and political statements continued
In 2007: start of internal self-government, with an elected assembly and a cross-party cabinet
Changed climate: e.g. ‘First Minister’ (Protestant) and ‘Deputy First Minister’ (Catholic) came from the more extremist wings of their communities but during the ceremony for their new positions they sat chatting and joking together over a cup of tea
Three other factors that helped to end the violence and soften extremist views
o The gradual process of righting the economic and social wrongs (which led to the Civil Rights movement in the first place). Catholics now have the same rights as Protestants.
o The events of September 11th 2001 in the USA: helped to persuade terrorist groups to disarm
o The transformation of the south or Ireland during the 1990s from a backward and (in Protestant eyes) priest-ridden country to a modern economy in which the Catholic church has lost most of its former power. (Now, if Northern Ireland gets swallowed up by the Republic, the Protestants would find it less terrible)
Ulster = name used for the part of Ireland which belongs to the UK
Wales is not in the flag of the Union Jack because they dont like the idea of being fixed into a symbol of the union from which they would like to secede, according to the nationalists. But the Welsh MP asked for a change in the Union flag, they want the Welsh dragon to appear on it somewhere.
Jerry = a nickname which was used to denote the German people collectively.