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Biology Unit 3.2: Cell Processes Cheat Sheet by

Lipids

Organic compounds that are not soluble in water but are soluble in oil. Some examples are:
-Phosp­hol­ipids
    -in the cell membrance, the heads are hydr­oph­ilic, the tails are hydr­oph­obic
-Steroids
    -include choles­terol and hormones  ­ ­(ch­ole­sterol is also in the cell membrane)
-Fats

Lipids store long-term energy, support cell membrane, cushion organs, insulate, help brain develope, etc.

Dehydr­ation Synthesis Applied to Lipids

*This is a saturated trigly­cer­ide
When your body has more calories than it needs, it turns the calories to trigly­cerides and stores them.
To make a single trigly­ceride, you need one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acid chains.
Water is taken out and the four molecules bind together to form trigly­cer­ides.

Hydrolysis Applied to Lipids

Breaking down lipids with water
1. You ate lipids that need to be broken down to use
2. Your body ran out of carboh­ydrates and needs to break down fat stores for energy

3500 calories in one pound of fat
 

Vocabulary

Trigly­cerides
The type of fat our bodies make and store.
Hydrop­hilic
Likes water/­faces water.
Hydrop­hobic
Doesn't like water/­faces away from water.

Types of Fat

There is saturated fat and unsatu­rated fat. The satura­ted­/un­sat­urated part refers to the amount of hydrogen atoms on one molecule of fat. There are two kinds of unsatu­rated fat, mono­sat­urated fat and poly­sat­urated fat

Saturated Fats

Satu­rated Fat has all of the possible hydrogen atoms on it.
It also does not have a double bond, all the bonds are single.
Saturated trigly­cerides are generally solid at room temper­ature and tend to be the most unhealthy.
They can contribute to arte­rio­scl­ero­sis which is when blood vessels harden due to too much fat on the inner walls.
Some examples of saturated fat are: shortening (the worst possible fat), butter, cheese, beef and pork.

Monoun­sat­urated Fat

Mono­uns­atu­rated fat is when the fatty acid chain has one place where it is unsatu­rated. This means that there is a double bond and it is missing hydrogen atoms. It also is bent/has a kink.
Monoun­sat­urated fat is actually better for you. It does not increase risk of arteri­osc­lerosis and it reduces choles­terol which causes heart disease.
It is usually liquid at room temper­ature.
One example is olive oil. Monoun­sat­urated fats can usually be found in avocado and nuts.

Polyun­sat­urated Fat

Where the fatty acid chains have two or more points of unsatu­ration
Liquid at room temp
Better than saturated fat but worse than monoun­sat­urated fat
Ex: Corn oil, soy oil, canola oil, safflower oil
 

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