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Urinary System Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Urinary System Organs

Urinary Bladder
which filter blood and subseq­uently produce transport, store, and interm­itt­ently excrete urine (liquid waste).

System divided by

The lower part consti­tutes the pelvic urinary organs and includes the short portion of the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.

The suprarenal glands function as part of the endocrine system, secreting hormones like aldost­erone.

Urinary System Functions

1.Fi­lter kidneys filter Waste processing
2. Waste proces­sing. The kidneys process this filtrate, allowing wastes and excess ions to leave the body in urine while returning needed substances to the blood in just the right propor­tions
3. Elimin­ation. Although the lungs and the skin also play roles in excretion, the kidneys bear the major respon­sib­ility for elimin­ating nitrog­enous wastes, toxins, and drugs from the body.
4.Regu­lation. The kidneys also regulate the blood’s volume and chemical makeup so that the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases is mainta­ined.
5.Other regulatory functions. By producing the enzyme renin, they help regulate blood pressure, and their hormone erythr­opo­ietin stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.
6.Conv­ersion. Kidney cells also convert vitamin D to its active form.

Key Facts



waste by-pro­ducts that result from metabolism are removed from the bloods­tream through urine.
Such harmful products include:
urea and creatinine
which are end products of protein metabolism
drugs or their breakdown products
in diseased condit­ions, urine can contain glucose (as in diabetes mellitus), or proteins (in kidney disease), the excretion of which is normally prevented
a consid­erable amount of water, the quantity of which is strictly contro­lled.
when there is a heavy intake of water, and least when intake is low or when there is substa­ntial water loss in some other way (for example by perspi­ration in hot weather). The ureters and urethra are simply passages for the transp­ort­ation of urine into- and from the urinary bladder respec­tively.

3 processes making urine

glomerular filtration
BP forces water and small solutes out of glomeruli and into Bowman's capsules. This fluid is then called renal filtrate
tubular reabso­rption
Tubular reabso­rpt­ion­-Re­covery of useful materials from renal filtrate and their return to blood in the peritu­bular capill­aries.
Tubular secretion
Tubular secret­ion­-Su­bst­ances actively secreted from blood in the pertit­ubular capill­aries into the filtrate in the renal tubules
About tubular reabso­rption and secretion
Exiting the glomerular capsule, renal filtrate enters the renal tubules.

part of kidneys

Renal cortex forms outer region of kidney

Renal medull­a­forms inner region

Renal column­s­Ext­ensions from renal cortex­--d­ivide interior region into cone-s­haped sections

Renal pyrami­ds­co­ne-­shaped sections. They consist of tubules for transp­orting urine away from cortex. Base of each pyramid faces outward toward cortex.

Renal papill­aThe point of the pyrami­d--­faces hilum

Minor calyx­renal papilla extends into this cup. Minor calyx collects urine leaving the papilla

Major calyxTwo or three minor calyces join together and form a major calyx

Renal pelvis The major calyces converge to form this. It receives urine from major calyces


what is the functional part of the kidney
the nephron
Urine is formed in 1 million nephrons per kidney.
Two major parts are:
*Renal corpuscle w/ glomerulus
*Renal tubule w/ peritu­bular capill­aries.
Those are the two sites of exchange between blood plasma and urinary filtrate within the nephron.
All parts of renal tubule are surrounded by peritu­bular capill­aries which arise from efferent arteriole and receive materials reabsorbed by the renal tubules