This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.
Urinary System Organs
which filter blood and subsequently produce transport, store, and intermittently excrete urine (liquid waste).
System divided by
The lower part constitutes the pelvic urinary organs and includes the short portion of the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra.
The suprarenal glands function as part of the endocrine system, secreting hormones like aldosterone.
Urinary System Functions
1.Filter kidneys filter Waste processing
2. Waste processing. The kidneys process this filtrate, allowing wastes and excess ions to leave the body in urine while returning needed substances to the blood in just the right proportions
3. Elimination. Although the lungs and the skin also play roles in excretion, the kidneys bear the major responsibility for eliminating nitrogenous wastes, toxins, and drugs from the body.
4.Regulation. The kidneys also regulate the blood’s volume and chemical makeup so that the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases is maintained.
5.Other regulatory functions. By producing the enzyme renin, they help regulate blood pressure, and their hormone erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.
6.Conversion. Kidney cells also convert vitamin D to its active form.
waste by-products that result from metabolism are removed from the bloodstream through urine.
Such harmful products include:
urea and creatinine
which are end products of protein metabolism
drugs or their breakdown products
in diseased conditions, urine can contain glucose (as in diabetes mellitus), or proteins (in kidney disease), the excretion of which is normally prevented
a considerable amount of water, the quantity of which is strictly controlled.
when there is a heavy intake of water, and least when intake is low or when there is substantial water loss in some other way (for example by perspiration in hot weather). The ureters and urethra are simply passages for the transportation of urine into- and from the urinary bladder respectively.
3 processes making urine
BP forces water and small solutes out of glomeruli and into Bowman's capsules. This fluid is then called renal filtrate
Tubular reabsorption-Recovery of useful materials from renal filtrate and their return to blood in the peritubular capillaries.
Tubular secretion-Substances actively secreted from blood in the pertitubular capillaries into the filtrate in the renal tubules
About tubular reabsorption and secretion
Exiting the glomerular capsule, renal filtrate enters the renal tubules.
part of kidneys
Renal cortex forms outer region of kidney
Renal medullaforms inner region
Renal columnsExtensions from renal cortex--divide interior region into cone-shaped sections
Renal pyramidscone-shaped sections. They consist of tubules for transporting urine away from cortex. Base of each pyramid faces outward toward cortex.
Renal papillaThe point of the pyramid--faces hilum
Minor calyxrenal papilla extends into this cup. Minor calyx collects urine leaving the papilla
Major calyxTwo or three minor calyces join together and form a major calyx
Renal pelvis The major calyces converge to form this. It receives urine from major calyces
what is the functional part of the kidney
Urine is formed in 1 million nephrons per kidney.
Two major parts are:
*Renal corpuscle w/ glomerulus
*Renal tubule w/ peritubular capillaries.
Those are the two sites of exchange between blood plasma and urinary filtrate within the nephron.
All parts of renal tubule are surrounded by peritubular capillaries which arise from efferent arteriole and receive materials reabsorbed by the renal tubules