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Earth Science (Gems) Cheat Sheet by

Gems are often formed under high pressure and temperature through geologic time.


precious or semipr­ecious stones formed from rock materials that were subjected to high temper­ature and pressure over a long period of time
rare and expensive
used mainly for jewelry and other ornamental purposes



best example of an expensive gem
comes from what used to be wood millions of years ago but was buried deep under Earth
biggest diamond mines are in Africa

Nephrite or Jade

a common gemstone found in the Philip­pines

Philippine Jade

not of common variety
a type or nephrite

Two types of mineral that are classified as jade:



found in continents that are geolog­ically older than islands

Corundum or Aluminum Oxide

with passage of time and under high temper­ature and pressure becomes either ruby (blood red stone) or sapphire (deep blue stone)


respon­sible for the red color in ruby

Titanium and Iron

gives sapphire its deep blue color

Ruby (red) and Sapphire (blue)

often found together in
> Myanmar
> Thailand
> Cambodia
> Vietnam
> Tanzania
> Madagascar
> Australia


a green gemstone is a type of beryl (a mineral consisting of beryllium and aluminum silicate)
found in Asia, America, Africa, and Europe


From 1995 to 2005, 47% of the world's production by volume came from Columbia in South America. Other major producers were Zambia - 21%, Brazil - 20%, and Russia - 7%.


an opaque blue-green gemstone
a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminum
first mined in the Sinai Peninsula and China
also found in the United States, Chile, and Australia

Uses of Gemstones

used as ornamental stones
bearings in highly precise and small mechanical devices such as watches
render lubricants unnece­ssarily
Ruby and other transp­arent gems are used in laser-­emi­tting devices to focus light.


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