Cheatography
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Laws
Zeroth Law: If system x = system y & system y = system z, then system x = system z. (Transitive) 
First Law: Internal energy(ΔU) of an isolated system is constant. No heat lost, only transferred. 
Second Law: The entropy of any isolated system always increases. 
Third Law: The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. 
Cyclic Rule: ( dP/ dT) v
( dT/ dV) p
( dV/ dP) T
= 1 
Definitions
Adiabatic: No transfer of heat or matter 
Diathermal: Heat allowed to transfer, no matter transfer. Can transfer energy in the form of work 
Enthalpy(ΔH): Amount of heat content used or released in a system at constant pressure 
Irreversible: A process that cannot return both the system and the surroundings to their original conditions. 
Exam 2
ΔU=m s
/M s
ΔU comb
+m H2O
/M H2O
C v,m
(H2O)ΔT+ΔTC calorimeter

ΔH ^{o}=m salt
/M salt
ΔH ^{o}solution
+m H2O
/M H2O
C p,m
(H2O)ΔT+ΔTC calorimeter

S=k ln(W) W=#of states 
Efficiency = 1q cd
/q ab
 <1 
ΔH ^{o}rt
=ΔH ^{o}298
+∫ΔC p
(T) dT from 298 to T 
ΔH combustion
= ΔU combustion
+Δ(PV) 
For Solids & Liquids: ΔH~= ΔU 
Δs=nRln(P f
/P i
)+∫nC pm
/T dT for P i
to P f

Δs=nRln(V f
/V i
)+∫nC vm
/T dT for V i
to V f

Isolated System: ΔS=q p
(1/T 1
 1/T 2
) 
Isothermal, Ideal: ΔS=nRln(V f
/V i
) 
ΔS total
=ΔS+ΔS surroundings

ΔG=nRT Σ x i
ln(x i
) x i
is mole fraction 



Internal Energy (ΔU)
General 
ΔU=q+w 
Constant Volume 

Adiabatic, Reversible 
ΔU= w = n(C pm
R)ΔT = nC vm
ΔT 
Ideal 

Enthalpy (ΔH) (State Fxn)
General 
ΔH= ΔU+Δ(PV) = ΔU+nRΔT 
Constant Pressure 

Ideal 

Constant Volume 

Even More General 
dH= ( dH/ dP) T
dT + ( dH/ dT) P
dP 
Liquids & Solids 

Constant Pressure, closed system 

Isobaric 

Exam 2 Material
S m
(T)=S m
(0 ^{o}k) +∫C pm
/T dT(solid 0T f
) +ΔH fus
/T f
+ ∫C pm
/T dT(liquid T f
T b
) +ΔH vap
/T b
∫C pm
/T dT(gas T b
T) ` 
For Ideal Gases: ΔS m
=Rln(V f
/V i
)=Rln(P f
/P i
) 
ΔG(T 2
)/T 2
= ΔG(T 1
)/T 1
+ΔH(T 1
)(1/T 2
1/T 1
) 
Max Work: Reversible, adiabatic, isothermal 
Hess's Law: Total Enthalpy change is independent of # of steps(pathindependent). 
ΔA = ΔUTΔS = ΔHnRT (Hemholtz) 
for ΔG ^{o}r
only include nonpure substances. 
Exam 3



dA = 𝛾 dσ gamma is surface tension 
Work = 8pi𝛾r dr 
Force = 8pi𝛾r 
h(capillary rise/depression) = 2𝛾/𝞺gr 
𝓾 B
=𝓾° B
+RTln(𝛾[B]) gamma is activity coefficient 




q 12
= εσA(T 1 ^{4}T 2 ^{4})  Heat xchange via radiation b/t 2 surfaces 
q'' s
= h(T s
T ∞
)  Newton's Law of Cooling 

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