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Dry Bulk Cheat Sheet by


Bulk commodity vs bulk cargo
Four main charac­ter­istics of bulk commod­ities which influence their sustai­nab­ility for transport in bulk:
- Volume
- Handling and stowage
- Cargo value
- Regularity of flow

Factors in the bulk market

Commodity supply industries
Steel production
Growing infras­tru­cture develo­pment in developing countries
Used to be Europe, USA and Japan, now BRIC [Brasil, Russia, India, China]
Overca­pacity in the fleet + large orderbook
Price and volume


Refrig­erator ships
Temper­ature controlled transp­ort­ation
Usually food
Compet­ition from containers


Capesize bulk carrier
> 100.000 dwt, Coal and ore, ULOC, VLOC
Panamax bulk carrier
60.000­-10­0.000 dwt, Coal, crude oil and petroleum, Latin-­America
Handymax bulk carrier
40.000­-60.000 dwt, Small and large ports, often 4 cranes
Handysize bulk carrier
10.000­-40.000 dwt, the smallest bulk carriers, often 4 cranes
OBO carrier
Oil/Bu­lk/Ore, Dry and wet bulk, Cleaning is demanding, expensive to build, not built any more


1850: The first bulk ships built
1900: The first diesel fueled ships with integrated loading and unloading equipment
1958: Thorvald Klaveness built the worlds first special made bulk carrier, Carried fertilizer from Norway
1961: Klaveness was the first in the world to carry cement

Industrial revolution

From short-sea to deep-sea
Increased trade between the indust­ria­lized countries
Increased energy need, increased production
Larger and quicker ships
Specia­lis­edbulk carrieres

Dry bulk

Major bulk:
- Iron ore•Coal
- Grain
- Phosphate rocks
- Bauxite and alumina

Minor bulk:
- Forest products
- Sugar
- Agribulk

Future trends

Surplus in the market
China’s growth? Stagna­tion?
Other BRIC countries
Intern­ational bulk fleet
Baltic dry index

Ship types

OBO / Combin­ation Carriers

Iron ore

20% of the dry bulk
Measured in tons
Very dusty


Electr­icity production
Fuel for heating
Enviro­nme­ntally questi­onable


Food production
Rice, corn, oatmeal, wheat
Demanding transp­ort­ati­on–high risk
Ventil­ation and protection from bad weather and bugs


Dusty and absorbs moisture


Production of aluminum
Indonesia –50% of the export
Kina –70% of import
Uncertain trade in the future due to Indonesian stop in export

Minor bulk

Represents the rest of the dry bulk industry
Sugar, minerals, forest products

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