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DNA Structure and Replication Cheat Sheet by

Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are polymeric macrom­ole­cules, or large biological molecules, essential for all known forms of life. Nucleic acids, which include DNA (deoxy­rib­onu­cleic acid) and RNA (ribon­ucleic acid), are made from monomers known as nucleo­tides.

DNA Replic­ation

Helicase and Unzipping
Their main function is to unpackage an organism's genes.
Leading Strand
Strand of DNA being replicated contin­uously.
DNA Polymerase
The DNA polyme­rases are enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleo­tides, the building blocks of DNA.
RNA Primase
DNA primase is an enzyme involved in the replic­ation of DNA.
Lagging Strand
The lagging strand is the strand of nascent DNA whose direction of synthesis is opposite to the direction of the growing replic­ation fork. Because of its orient­ation, replic­ation of the lagging strand is more compli­cated than that of the leading strand.
Okazaki Fragments
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthe­sized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replic­ation.
DNA Ligase
In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC that facili­tates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosph­odi­ester bond.


Each one of is made up of small replic­ating units.
Three Ingred­ients
5- Carbon Sugar Molecules, A Phosphate Group, One of Four Nitrogen Bases
Base Pairs
Base pairs, which form between specific nucleo­bases (also termed nitrog­enous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.
Base Sequences
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleo­tides within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule. By conven­tion, sequences are usually presented from the 5' end to the 3' end.


Ribonu­cleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule. It's implicated in a varied sort of biological roles in coding, decoding, regula­tion, and expression of genes.

Differ­ences between RNA and DNA

1. RNA is a single stranded molecule, no double helix.
2. The Sugar in RNA is Ribose, with an extra Hydrogen Molecule.
3. Does not contain Thymine, it contains Uracil instead.


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