Cheatography

# Physics Reviewer 1 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by syntaa

This is my reviewer for physics

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

### Inertia & Torque

 Inertia - is defined as the tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest. Moment of Inertia - it is also known as rotational inertia, it is defined as the property of a rotating body to resist change in its state of rotation Radius of gyration (k) - it is the distance from an axis of rotation Torque - it is the effect­iveness of a force in rotating a body ----- Torque is a vector quantity, Torque is positive if it produce counte­rcl­ockwise rotation. It is negative if it produce clockwise rotation -----
The SI unit for the moment of inertia is kg x m2
Formula For Inertia - I = mr2
Formula For Radius of Gyration - √ l/m
Formula For Torque - τ = Fr

### Newton's Law of Gravit­ation

 Law of Gravit­ation - that any particle of matter in the universe attracts any other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them. Gravit­ational Field - defined as equal to the universal gravit­ational constant (G) times the objects mass, divided by the square of the distance. Gravit­ational Potential Energy - has been defined in a system consisting of the Earth and an object of mass.

### Intensity of Waves

 Wave Intensity - power delivered per unit area. Superp­osition - the distur­bance of waves are superi­mposed when they come together. Wave Interf­erence - is a phenomenon that occurs when two waves meet while traveling along the same medium. Types of Superp­osition of waves 1.) Constr­uctive Interf­erence - type of interf­erence that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interf­ering waves have a displa­cement in the same direction. 2.) Destru­ctive Interf­erence - if two waves superi­mpose with each other in opposite phase. ------­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­----- Standing Waves - when the incident wave interferes with the reflected wave Nodes - point in a wave where the particles are relatively at rest. Antinodes - positions of maximum transverse displa­cement.
Formula for Intensity of Waves - l=P/2πr

### Pascal's Principle

 Pascal's Principle (Pascal's Law) - "­sta­tement that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transm­itted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the contai­ner."

### Zeroth Law of Thermo­dyn­amics

 Thermo­dyn­amics -refers to the study of energy that deals with heat, work and temper­ature. Laws of Thermo­dyn­amics Zeroth Law of Thermo­dyn­amics - "­states that if two thermo­dynamic systems are in thermal equili­brium with each other, and also separately in thermal equili­brium with a third system, then the three systems are in thermal equili­brium with each other."­ ------­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­----- Temper­ature -It is the degree of hotness or coldness of an object- Temper­ature Scales Celsius - Introduced by Swedish astronomer Andres Celsius in 1742 Fahrenheit - Introduced by the 18th Century German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit Kelvin - Named after the British psychi­atrist William Thompson Rankine - Introduced by William Rankine Reaumur - Establ­ished by the French naturalist Rene-A­ntoine Ferchault Reaumur

### Second Law of Thermo­dyn­amics and Entropy

 Second Law of Thermo­dyn­amics - "­states that the state of entropy of the entire universe, as an isolated system, will always increase over time. The second law also states that the changes in the entropy in the universe can never be negati­ve."­ Entropy - the measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temper­ature that is unavai­lable for doing useful work.
The second law of thermo­dyn­amics shows that it is impossible to convert heat energy to mechanical energy with 100% consis­tency.

### Rotational Quantities & Static Equili­brium

 Rotation - refers to the motion of a body turning about an axis where each particle of the body moves along a circular path. Angular Velocity - is defined as the rate at which angular displa­cement changes with time. Statics - it is concerned with the calcul­ation of forces acting on and within structures that are in equili­brium. Static Equili­brium - defined as a body at rest having zero accele­ration and zero net forces. Center of gravity of a body - it is the point where its entire weight may be assumed to be concen­trated. Equili­brant - resultant of the forces acting on a body is not zero.
Angular Velocity may be expressed in deg/s, rad/s, or rev/s.
Angular Accele­ration may be expressed in deg/s2, rad/s2, or rev/s.2

### Oscill­ations and Waves

 Oscill­atory Motion - is defined as a motion that is repeating itself. Frequency - it is Defined as the number of cycle in oscill­ation. Period - classified as the time it takes for an object to return to its position after undergoing Oscill­ation. Cycle - one complete oscill­ation. Simple Harmonic Motion - Refers to the back and forth movement through an equili­brium, or central, position. Spring Mass Oscillator Simple Pendulum - The simple pendulum is another mechanical system that moves in an oscill­atory motion. It consists of a point mass ‘m’. ------­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­----- Types of Damped Oscill­ation Underd­amped - An underd­amped system moves fast and overshoot toward equili­brium. Overdamped - Overdamped system moves more slowly toward equili­brium. Critically Damped - Critically Damped system moves more fast toward equili­brium without over shooting

### Sound & Doppler Effect

 Sound Wave - a pattern of distur­bance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound. Doppler Effects - is the apparent change in the frequency of the sound.

### Archimedes Principle

 Archimedes Principle - "­states that a body immersed in a fluid experi­ences an upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced, and this is fundam­ental to the equili­brium of a body floating in still water."­ Buoyancy - is the tendency of an object to float in a fluid. All liquids and gases in the presence of gravity exert an upward force. Buoyant Force - the net upward force on any object in any fluid. Specific Gravity - the ration of the density of an object to a fluid.
NOTE
The object will rise to the surface and float if the buoyant force is greater that the object's weight
The object will sink if the buoyant force is less than the object's weight

### Thermal Expansion

 Thermal Expansion - is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temper­ature. Linear Expansion - is the change in the length of a body when the temper­ature changes. Volume Expansion - is the change in the volume of a body when the temper­ature changes.

### Kinematics

 Kinematics - descri­ption of motion. Rotation Angle When object rotate about its axis. Angular Speed - it is the rate of change of an angle. Angular velocity - it is a derivative of the change of angular displa­cement over a change of time. Angular accele­ration - change of angular velocity per unit time and measure in radians per second squared.

### Oscill­ations and Waves (Types of Waves)

 Mechanical Waves - Waves can occur whenever a system is disturbed from an equili­brium and when the distur­bance can travel, or propagate, from one region of the system to another. Types of Mechanical waves 1.) Transverse Waves - The vibration of the wave is at a right angle or perpen­dicular to the direction of the wave. 2.) Longit­udinal Waves - When the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction of the waves. Types of waves Periodic Wave - Periodic Wave is a wave with a repeating continuous pattern that determine its wave length and frequency Sinusoidal Wave - Sine wave or Sinusoidal Wave is a periodic waveforms whose shape can be plotted using the sine or cosine function from trigon­ometry
Parts of Waves
Crests - Highest point of a wave
Troughs - Lowest point of a wave

Direction of Waves
Compre­ssion - Refers to the area where the coils are squeezed together
Rarefr­action - Refers to the area where the coils are spread out

### Pressure

 Pressure - is the push on the surface created by one or more forces. The SI Unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa) named after the French mathem­atician and physicist Blaise Pascal. ------­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­----- Factors in Pressure 1.) The magnitude of force applied 2.) The area over which force is applied
1 Pa = 1N/m2

### Bernou­lli's Principle

 Bernou­lli's Principle - states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simult­ane­ously with a decrease in static pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

### First Law of Thermo­dyn­amics

 First Law of Thermo­dynamic - state that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it can be transf­erred. Thermo­dynamic System - Body of matter and/or radiation, confined in space by walls, with defined permea­bil­ities, which separate it from its surrou­ndings. The surrou­ndings may include other thermo­dynamic systems. ------­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­---­----- PV Diagrams -press­ure­-volume diagrams that illust­rates the thermo­dynamic processes. This are graphs in which pressure is the y-axis and volume is the x-axis.- 4 Process in PV Diagrams 1.)Iso­baric - An isobaric process is a process in which a gas is held by a constant pressure 2.)Iso­choric - Isochoric process is derived from the Greek words "­iso­" means "­con­sta­nt" and "­Cho­ric­" means "­spa­ce" or "­vol­ume­". 3.)Iso­thermal - In the isothermal process that temper­ature remains at constant. In this process the transfer of heat in the system happens so slowly 4.)Adi­abatic - The adiabatic process is the vice versa of the isothermal process. In which, there is no transfer of heat through the system.