Inertia & Torque
Inertia  is defined as the tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest.
Moment of Inertia  it is also known as rotational inertia, it is defined as the property of a rotating body to resist change in its state of rotation
Radius of gyration (k)  it is the distance from an axis of rotation
Torque  it is the effectiveness of a force in rotating a body
 Torque is a vector quantity, Torque is positive if it produce counterclockwise rotation. It is negative if it produce clockwise rotation  
The SI unit for the moment of inertia is kg x m^{2}
Formula For Inertia  I = mr^{2}
Formula For Radius of Gyration  √ l/m
Formula For Torque  τ = Fr
Newton's Law of Gravitation
Law of Gravitation  that any particle of matter in the universe attracts any other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
Gravitational Field  defined as equal to the universal gravitational constant (G) times the objects mass, divided by the square of the distance.
Gravitational Potential Energy  has been defined in a system consisting of the Earth and an object of mass. 
Intensity of Waves
Wave Intensity  power delivered per unit area.
Superposition  the disturbance of waves are superimposed when they come together.
Wave Interference  is a phenomenon that occurs when two waves meet while traveling along the same medium.
Types of Superposition of waves
1.) Constructive Interference  type of interference that occurs at any location along the medium where the two interfering waves have a displacement in the same direction.
2.) Destructive Interference  if two waves superimpose with each other in opposite phase.

Standing Waves  when the incident wave interferes with the reflected wave
Nodes  point in a wave where the particles are relatively at rest.
Antinodes  positions of maximum transverse displacement. 
Formula for Intensity of Waves  l=P/2πr
Pascal's Principle
Pascal's Principle (Pascal's Law)  "statement that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container." 
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics refers to the study of energy that deals with heat, work and temperature.
Laws of Thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics  "states that if two thermodynamic systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other, and also separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then the three systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other."

Temperature
It is the degree of hotness or coldness of an object
Temperature Scales
Celsius  Introduced by Swedish astronomer Andres Celsius in 1742
Fahrenheit  Introduced by the 18th Century German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
Kelvin  Named after the British psychiatrist William Thompson
Rankine  Introduced by William Rankine
Reaumur  Established by the French naturalist ReneAntoine Ferchault Reaumur 
Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy
Second Law of Thermodynamics  "states that the state of entropy of the entire universe, as an isolated system, will always increase over time. The second law also states that the changes in the entropy in the universe can never be negative."
Entropy  the measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work. 
The second law of thermodynamics shows that it is impossible to convert heat energy to mechanical energy with 100% consistency.


Rotational Quantities & Static Equilibrium
Rotation  refers to the motion of a body turning about an axis where each particle of the body moves along a circular path.
Angular Velocity  is defined as the rate at which angular displacement changes with time.
Statics  it is concerned with the calculation of forces acting on and within structures that are in equilibrium.
Static Equilibrium  defined as a body at rest having zero acceleration and zero net forces.
Center of gravity of a body  it is the point where its entire weight may be assumed to be concentrated.
Equilibrant  resultant of the forces acting on a body is not zero. 
Angular Velocity may be expressed in deg/s, rad/s, or rev/s.
Angular Acceleration may be expressed in deg/s^{2}, rad/s^{2}, or rev/s.^{2}
Oscillations and Waves
Oscillatory Motion  is defined as a motion that is repeating itself.
Frequency  it is Defined as the number of cycle in oscillation.
Period  classified as the time it takes for an object to return to its position after undergoing Oscillation.
Cycle  one complete oscillation.
Simple Harmonic Motion  Refers to the back and forth movement through an equilibrium, or central, position.
Spring Mass Oscillator
Simple Pendulum  The simple pendulum is another mechanical system that moves in an oscillatory motion. It consists of a point mass ‘m’.

Types of Damped Oscillation
Underdamped  An underdamped system moves fast and overshoot toward equilibrium.
Overdamped  Overdamped system moves more slowly toward equilibrium.
Critically Damped  Critically Damped system moves more fast toward equilibrium without over shooting 
Sound & Doppler Effect
Sound Wave  a pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water or any other liquid or solid matter) as it propagates away from the source of the sound.
Doppler Effects  is the apparent change in the frequency of the sound. 
Archimedes Principle
Archimedes Principle  "states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences an upthrust equal to the weight of the fluid displaced, and this is fundamental to the equilibrium of a body floating in still water."
Buoyancy  is the tendency of an object to float in a fluid. All liquids and gases in the presence of gravity exert an upward force.
Buoyant Force  the net upward force on any object in any fluid.
Specific Gravity  the ration of the density of an object to a fluid. 
NOTE
The object will rise to the surface and float if the buoyant force is greater that the object's weight
The object will sink if the buoyant force is less than the object's weight
Thermal Expansion
Thermal Expansion  is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temperature.
Linear Expansion  is the change in the length of a body when the temperature changes.
Volume Expansion  is the change in the volume of a body when the temperature changes. 


Kinematics
Kinematics  description of motion.
Rotation Angle When object rotate about its axis.
Angular Speed  it is the rate of change of an angle.
Angular velocity  it is a derivative of the change of angular displacement over a change of time.
Angular acceleration  change of angular velocity per unit time and measure in radians per second squared. 
Oscillations and Waves (Types of Waves)
Mechanical Waves  Waves can occur whenever a system is disturbed from an equilibrium and when the disturbance can travel, or propagate, from one region of the system to another.
Types of Mechanical waves
1.) Transverse Waves  The vibration of the wave is at a right angle or perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
2.) Longitudinal Waves  When the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction of the waves.
Types of waves
Periodic Wave  Periodic Wave is a wave with a repeating continuous pattern that determine its wave length and frequency
Sinusoidal Wave  Sine wave or Sinusoidal Wave is a periodic waveforms whose shape can be plotted using the sine or cosine function from trigonometry 
Parts of Waves
Crests  Highest point of a wave
Troughs  Lowest point of a wave
Direction of Waves
Compression  Refers to the area where the coils are squeezed together
Rarefraction  Refers to the area where the coils are spread out
Pressure
Pressure  is the push on the surface created by one or more forces.
The SI Unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa) named after the French mathematician and physicist Blaise Pascal.

Factors in Pressure
1.) The magnitude of force applied
2.) The area over which force is applied 
Bernoulli's Principle
Bernoulli's Principle  states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in static pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. 
First Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamic  state that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it can be transferred.
Thermodynamic System  Body of matter and/or radiation, confined in space by walls, with defined permeabilities, which separate it from its surroundings. The surroundings may include other thermodynamic systems.

PV Diagrams
pressurevolume diagrams that illustrates the thermodynamic processes. This are graphs in which pressure is the yaxis and volume is the xaxis.
4 Process in PV Diagrams
1.)Isobaric  An isobaric process is a process in which a gas is held by a constant pressure
2.)Isochoric  Isochoric process is derived from the Greek words "iso" means "constant" and "Choric" means "space" or "volume".
3.)Isothermal  In the isothermal process that temperature remains at constant. In this process the transfer of heat in the system happens so slowly
4.)Adiabatic  The adiabatic process is the vice versa of the isothermal process. In which, there is no transfer of heat through the system. 
