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Chapter 13: Immune System Disorders Cheat Sheet by

study guide for MCB2010C

Primary Immuno­def­iciency

Defini­tion: Inborn errors affecting immune factors, leading to deficient immunity.
Categories: Congenital immuno­def­ici­ency. Approx­imately 50% due to B cell issues. Around 30% linked to T cell defects. Roughly 18% are errors in phagoc­ytes. Approx­imately 2% relate to complement defici­encies

Secondary Immuno­def­iciency

Definition: Acquired immuno­def­ici­encies, more common than primary immuno­def­ici­encies.
Causes: Age. Certain infectious agents. Medical interv­ent­ions. Systemic disorders (e.g., diabetes, malnut­rition, alcoho­lism, hepati­tis).

Autoimmune Disorders and Diagnosing

Autoim­munity: Immune system attacks healthy self-t­issues. Genetics and exposure to certain infectious agents contri­bute. Over 100 autoimmune diseases described.
Diagnosis: General signs and symptoms. Presen­tation varies based on affected tissues. Hypers­ens­iti­vities are inappr­opriate immune responses. More common in developed nations (hygiene hypoth­esis).

Example of Primary Immuno­def­iciency

DiGeorge Syndrome
Deletion in part of chromosome 22. Causes impaired thymus develo­pment. Impairs cellular immune responses.

interv­etions secondary Immuno­def­ici­encies

Cancer treatments (e.g., radiation and chemot­her­apy). Steroid anti-i­nfl­amm­atory drugs (e.g., cortic­ost­ero­ids). Anti-s­eizure medica­tions.

Allergy and Type I Hypers­ens­iti­vities

Allergy: Triggered by allergens, leading to IgE produc­tion. Immune system reacts to harmless substa­nces. Examples: atopic asthma, atopic dermat­itis.
Systemic Anaphy­laxis: Localized and systemic anaphy­laxis. Systemic anaphy­laxis is potent­ially life-t­hre­atening and treated with epinep­hrine.
Diagnosis and Manage­ment: Diagnosis based on symptoms, blood/skin tests. Management includes allergen avoidance, medica­tions, and desens­iti­zation immuno­the­rapy.

Type 4 Hypers­ens­iti­vit­ies­/au­toi­mmune

Type IV Hypers­ens­iti­vities: T cell-m­edi­ated, not antibo­dy-­med­iated. Manifest slowly, causing delayed hypers­ens­itivity reactions. Respon­sible for autoimmune disorders.
Autoimmune Type IV Hypers­ens­iti­vities: Examples: Guilla­in-­BarrĂ© syndrome, Hashimoto thyroi­ditis, Type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, celiac disease. Therapies aim to reduce T cell response and inflam­mation.
Nonaut­oimmune Type IV Hypers­ens­iti­vities: Triggered by haptens. Examples: tuberculin skin test, contact dermat­itis, transplant rejection, graft-­ver­sus­-host disease.

Therapies for Primary Immuno­def­ici­encies

Bone marrow transp­lants. Intrav­enous or subcut­aneous antibody admini­str­ation. Cytokine therapies. Experi­mental treatments (e.g., stem cell transp­lants, thymus transp­lan­tation, gene therapy).

Immune Defici­encies and Cancer

The immune system protects against infections and cancer.
Patients with compro­mised immune systems are at increased risk for certain cancers.
Immuno­the­rapies aim to boost immune defenses to prevent or treat cancer.

Type II and Type III Hypers­ens­iti­vities

Type II Hypers­ens­iti­vities: IgG or IgM bind to cell surface or extrac­ellular antigens, leading to complement activation and cell lysis. Examples: Goodpa­sture syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, rheumatic heart disease.
Blood Groups and Transf­usion Reactions: Blood types based on antigens on red blood cells. Incomp­atible transf­usions cause hemolytic reactions.
Type III Hypers­ens­iti­vities: IgG or IgM antibodies bind to soluble targets, forming immune complexes. Examples: antive­noms, antito­xins.


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