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Infection Control and Asepsis NU Cheat Sheet by

over asepsis and infection

Chain of Infection

Infectious agent

Chain of Infection

infectious agent
Microo­rga­nisms
reservoir
where the pathogens multiply
portal of exit
how an infectious agent leave a reservoir (GI or respir­atory tract)
mode of transm­ission
Direct and indirect| contact droplet (D), airborne, vehicle born, vector born (I)
portal of entry
opening in skin
host
virulence depends on genetics and other factors such as age, nutrition, disease, and stress
Virulence: how able is it to produce disease
zoonosis: transm­ission from a vertebrate animal to a human
Fomites: inanimate non-living objects (paper)

Don and doff

don
doff
gown
gloves
mask
eyewear
eyewear
gown
gloves
mask

Contact Precau­tions

multidrug resistant organisms
MRSA VRE
RSV
Respir­atory
skin infections
wound infections
enteric infections
C diff
eye infections
varicellis zoster
specif­ically when it causes shingles
cutaneous diphtheria
when it affects only skin
herpes simplex
imeptigo
crusty pustule around mouth
pedicu­losis
lice. Wear hair cap
scabies
If a pt is placed on contact precau­tions, the correct PPE is gown and gloves. all surfaces are considered contam­inated. no paper in or out of the room
 

types of infection

Local
Syst­emic
erythema
fever
warmth
lympha­den­opathy
edema
fatigue
pain
bacter­emi­a/s­epsis
purulent exudate
hypote­nsion*
Purulent exudate: fluid that leaks from inflamed cells
Hypote­nsion is a result of sepsis d/t shock

Droplet Precau­tions

scarlet fever
strep
parvovirus
fifth disease
influenza
diphtheria
infects respir­atory tract
epiglo­titis
rubella
german measles
mumps
meningitis
mycoplasma pneumonia
adenovirus
droplets must be 5-10 microns
range is 3 feet
wear gloves and a surgical mask
pt must wear surgical mask outside of room
 

Stage of Illness

Incubation Period
asympt­omatic
Prodromal Period
Immune system becomes activated
Period of Illness
rash and other symptoms start...s­pecific to the disease process
Period of Conval­escnce
recovery

airborne precau­tions

requires a negative pressure room
pt wears surgical mask outside of room
PPE
gown gloves and N95
Measles
SARS
small pox
chickenpox
TB
 

Lab Values

neutro­phils
55-70%
lympho­cytes
20-40%
monocytes
2-8%
eosino­phils
1-4%
basophils
0.5-1%

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