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Backup-GR2 Cheat Sheet by

File Systems FAT,FA­T32­,ex­FAT­,NT­FS,ReFS

Backup Types

Full backup
Takes a full copy of the source and copies it to the desired destin­­ation

Increm­ental backup
Takes a backup of anything that has been changed or created since the last check. Looks for the "­ready for archiv­ing­" bit to check if the file has been edited.

Differ­ential backup
Similar to "­Inc­rem­ental backup­" the first time it is performed. It copies all data changed from the previous backup. However, each time it runs afterw­ards, it will continue to copy all data cahnge since the previous FULL backup. It requires more storage and time to complete than "­Inc­rem­ental Backup­"

Block backup
Block-­level backup is a feature of increm­ental backup that allows uploading for only changed parts of files instead of whole files. In order to do that, it uses a snapshot techno­logy.

File backup
Archive bit must be active on file

Volume / Partition

A Volume is treated like a separate drive from the physical drive, formatting a volume will only affect the volume.

A Partition is the definition of a section on a drive, using partitions enables the user to divide a drive into multiple sectors also known as Logical Volumes.

Basic Disk

Max 4 partitions
Supports Extended Partitions
up to 26 logic drives
introduced in MS-DOS

Dynamic Disk

Do not support OS
Supports simple, Spanned, Triped, Mirrored & Raid 5 Volumes
introduced in Windows 2000

Shadow Copy

Recovers Files and Folders
VSS stands for Volume Shadow copy Service
Storage area <= 300 Mb
64 change­s/s­nap­shots are recorded
Only works on NTFS file systems
Commands :
vssadmin add shadow­storage
vssadmin create shadow­storage
vssadmin delete shadow­storage
vssadmin resize shadow­storage
vssadmin list shadow­storage
vssadmin list providers
vssadmin list volumes
vssadmin list shadows
vssadmin list writers
vssadmin list shadows
vssadmin resize shadow­­st­orage

Disk Quota

Stands for File Server Resource Manager
is a feature that tracks and can be used to restrict the amount of space that a user's files can use on an NTFS volume
Hard quotas
impose a hard limit on system resources; any operation that would result in exceeding the limit fails. The following settings create hard quotas: Disk Limit parameter Files Limit parameter
Soft quotas
send a warning message when resource usage reaches a certain level, but do not affect data access operat­ions, so you can take approp­riate action before the quota is exceeded. The following settings create soft quotas: Threshold for Disk Limit parameter Soft Disk Limit parameter Soft Files Limit parameter

RAID (Redudant Array Of Indepe­ndent Disks)

Minimum 2 disks - Not redundant
Minimum 2 disks - Mirroring
Minimum 3 disks - Data is shared on bit-level on multiple disks
Minimum 3 disks - Stripping with distri­buted partitions
Minimum 4 disks - Stripping with double distri­buted partitions
Raid10 (1+0)
Minimum 4 disks - Stripping then mirroring

Windows Server Backup

Remember to run:
# Attribute disk clear readonly
# convert dynamic

On ALL the drives for the RAID5

Raid Types

Volume Type
Mirrored Volume
Stores data to two dublicate disk at the same time.
Fault Tolerant, can lose on disk as data is preserved on both.
The system automa­tically switches to the functi­oning disk to maintain service.
Striped Volume
Uses storage areas on several different disks.
Improves perfor­mance by writing to mulitple disk simult­ane­ously.
Saves data from a single file to mulitple disks.
NOT fault tolerant, if one disk dies then all data is lost.
Can NOT contain system or boot files.
RAID5 Volume
Contain three or more disks.
Like a striped volume, portions of a single file are written to each disc in the set.
RAID5 volumes add fault tolerance to striping through a process called parity (data recovery inform­ation is added to each disk).
Often called a striped set with parity.


MBR (Master Boot Record)
GPT (Guided Partition Table)
A special type of boot sector at the very beginning of a physical storage device.
A standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical storage device.
Max Diskspace 2.2TB
Max Diskspace 1.8EB
Max 4 primary partitions
max 128 partitions
Supports only one extended partition (up to 26 total partit­ions)
Supports UEFI

Disk Admini­str­ation


Startu­p/R­ecovery Commands

To recover files or folders you can use either the Recovery Wizard or wbadmin start recovery
Boot Config­uration Data
Software utility for BCD/Bo­otMGR
Directory Services Restore Mode
Executable for troubl­esh­ooting startup issues
Active Directory database mainte­nance tool
Command for accessing Microsoft System Config­uration
Sets properties in boot database to control boot loading
Checks a disk and displays a status report
Displays or configures disk partitions
Enables you to back up and restore your operating system, volumes, files, folders, and applic­ations from a command prompt.
Used to restore AD data after executing the Ntdsut­il.exe command. When you perform an author­itative restore, you prevent specific objects from the backup from being overwr­itten by Active Directory replic­ation.
Any changes that took place since the backup are replicated to the restored domain contro­ller.

AT commands Backup

at 23:00 cmd /c copy C:\Dok­­­u­m­e­­n­­te­r. C:\Backups
at \\products 00:00 /every­­­:­M­,­­T­­,W­­­,Th,F backup


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