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Psychology - Human Development Cheat Sheet by

Research Methods and Development

Psycho­logists

 
experiment
 
theory
Harry Harlow
rhesus monkeys
matern­al-­sep­ara­tion, dependency needs, social isolation, importance of caregiving and compan­ionship to social and cognitive develo­pment
Contact comfort
Mary Ainsworth
infant is placed in scenarios with or without its mother as well as with or without a stranger
develo­pment of the attachment theory, observe early emotional attachment between a child and its primary caregiver
Strange Situation Classi­fic­ation (SSC)
Jean Piaget
improv­ising conver­sations with children to understand their unique mental worlds
how children develop intell­ect­ually throughout the course of childhood
Genetic Episte­mology
Lev Vygotsky
 
social intera­ction plays a critical role in children's learning & is continuous process that is profoundly influenced by culture
Social Constr­uct­ivism (socio­cul­tural)
Tolman
rat maze, withheld food
indivi­duals do more than merely respond to stimuli; they act on beliefs, attitudes, changing condit­ions, & strive toward goals
Purposive Behavi­orism
Pavlov
dogs & bell, drooling
people will repeat an action without realizing that they have been condit­ioned to do so
Classical Condit­ioning
Bandura
Bobo Doll, aggres­sio­n/i­mmi­tation
we learn social behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others
Social Learning
Skinner
 
children receive “rewards” for using language in a functional manner.
Operant Condit­ioning

Research Design (infants & Children)

   
limita­tio­ns/­risks
longit­udinal
examines change within indivi­duals, stability vs change over time. (ex. at 12mo, 18mo, & 24mo)
costly, attrition, practice effect, cohort effects
cross-­sec­tional
changes between groups (ex. average changes between age groups)
yield inform­ation on age-re­lated change, not develo­pment per se
sequential
(both longit­udinal and cross-­sec­tional compar­isons) children of different ages are enrolled into a study at various points in time to examine age-re­lated changes, develo­pment within the same indivi­duals as they age, and account for the possib­ility of cohort effects
costly, practice effects
the strategy or blueprint for deciding how to collect and analyze inform­ation, dictates which methods are used and how

Research Methods (Infants)

involu­ntary or obligatory responses
because of limited motor control, test involu­ntary responses
Ex. habitu­ation vs dishab­itu­ation
Bailla­rgeon and colleagues (1985): Object Permanence & Solidity Principle
voluntary responses
behaviors that a person completes by choice
Ex. recall memory and elicited imitation
psycho­phy­sio­logical responses
measure heart rate, hormone levels, brain activity, etc.
Ex. event-­rel­ate­d-p­ote­ntials (ERPs)

Interview Techniques

vernal report paradigms
children provide written or verbal answers to scenarios

Human Develo­pment

Prenatal
(egg + sperm) = zygote = blastula = neural tube
Neonatal
Attachment (~8mo), Language (babbl­ing), Cognition (Piaget)
Childhood
Cognition
Object perman­ence, conser­vation, abstract reasoning, theory of mind, cultural influence
Adoles­cence
Gender
Spectrum, cis vs trans, adrenarche (6-12) and menarche

Research Design (Infants & Children)

 

Vocabulary

assent
minor partic­ipants are asked to indicate their willin­gness to partic­ipate in a study
attrition
partic­ipant drops out, or fails to complete, all parts of a study
bidire­ctional relations
one variable is likely both cause and conseq­uence of another variable
cohort effects
research findings differ for partic­ipants of the same age tested at different points in historical time
cross-­sec­tional research
examines behavior in partic­ipants of different ages who are tested at the same point in time
dishab­itu­ation
partic­ipants demons­trate increased attention (through looking or listening behavior) to a new stimulus after having been habituated to a different stimulus
elicited imitation
A behavioral method used to examine recall memory in infant
event-­related potentials (ERP)
recording of partic­ipant brain activity using a stretchy cap
habitu­ation
partic­ipants demons­trated decrease attention to repeat­edl­y-p­res­ented stimuli.
informed consent
getting permission from adults
instit­utional Review Boards (IRBs)
reviews and approves research procedures
involu­ntary or obligatory responses
Behavior that does not require much conscious thought
motor control
thinking to direct muscles and limbs
object permanence
unders­tanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be directly observed
practice effect
partic­ipants get better at a task over time by “pract­icing” ( can be partic­ularly proble­matic in longit­udinal and sequential research designs)
recall memory
rememb­ering discrete episodes or events from the past (including encoding, consol­idation and storage, and retrieval)
solidity principle
idea that two solid masses should not be able to move through one another
violation of expect­ation paradigm
research method in which infants are expected to respond in a particular way because one of two conditions violates or goes against what they should expect based on their everyday experi­ences
 

SOCIAL EVOLUTION & BEHAVIOR

symbiosis
selfis­hness
altruism
mating & natural selection
innate behavior
herita­bility & enviro­nment

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

what is culture?
obeying norms, roles, enviro­nmental cues, prejud­ice­/st­ero­types, confor­mity, bonding, inferi­ority
 
Milgram
dispos­ition bias
person­ality traits influence behavior
situation bias
situation influences behavior
fundam­ental attrib­ution
bias from situation bias
cognitive dissonance
belief system contra­dicts behavior
famili­arity
positive attitude toward familiar things
validity effect
believing something that is repeated
ethnoc­entrism
ne's own group is superior
cultural relativism
view that other groups are all equally valid and no one system is really “better”
invuln­era­bility illusion
group can do no wrong
self-c­ens­orship
dissenters stay quiet
pressure to conform
teasing and pressuring
unanimity
illusion of consensus

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

what is culture?
obeying norms, roles, enviro­nmental cues, prejud­ice­/st­ero­types, confor­mity, bonding, inferi­ority
 
Milgram
 

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