Show Menu
Cheatography

A&P Lecture 1 Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

General Defini­tions

Anatomy: The science of body structures and relati­onships
Physio­logy: The science of body functions
Homeos­tasis: a condition of equili­brium (balance) in the body's internal enviro­nment

Structural Levels of the Body

1. Chemical Level
Atoms (C,H,O­,N,P)
2. Cellular Level
Chemicals together - smallest basic living unit of the body
3. Tissue Level
Cells coming together
4. Organ Level
Stomac­h...single organisms in a body
5. Organ System Level
Digestive System... Group of organs
6. Organism Level
Human... Organ Systems

Feedback Systems

Receptor
Body structure that monitors and sends input to the control center
Nerve ending of the skin response to temper­ature change
Control Center
Brain
Sets range of values; evaluates input; generates output command as Nerve impulses
Effector
Recieves output from the control center and produces a respponse that changes the controlled conditions
found in nearly every organ or tissue; if body temp drops, brain sends an impulse to the skeletal muscles to contract which causes shivering to generate heat

Organ Groups = Organ Systems

Integu­mentary
hair, skin, nails, endocr­ineal glands
Skeletal
Bones, Cartilage, Joints
Muscular
Skeletal Muscle
Nervous
Brain, spinal cord, nerve
Lymphatic
thymus, spleen, lymphatic vessel, lymph node
Respir­atory
Larynx, lung, bronchea, pharynx
Reprod­uctive
Ovary, testes, penis, vagina, mamary gland
Urinary
Kidney, ureterm urinary bladder, urethra
Cardio­vas­cular
Heart, artery, vein, blood vessels
Endocrine
Pineal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, ovary, testis, adrenal gland,, thymus, pituitary gland
Digestive
Pharynx, anus, small intestine, large intestine, gallbl­adder, liver, stomach, pancreas
 

Negative Feedback

External (running) or internal (stress) stimulus increase BP
Baro­rec­eptors (pressure sensitive recept­ors)
- Detect higher Bp
- send nerve impulses to brain (control center) for interp­ret­ation
- Response sent via nerve impulse to heart and blood vessels (effec­tors)
- BP drops and homeos­tasis is restored
- Drop in BP negates the original stimulus

Positive Feedback System: Normal Childbirth

1. Uterine contra­tions cause cervix to open
2. Stretc­h-s­ens­itive receptors in cervix send impulse to brain
3. Oxtocin is released into the blood
4. Contra­ctions enhanced and baby pushes farther down the uterus
5. Cycle continues to the birth of the baby (no stretc­hing)

Body Planes

Sagittal Plane
Head to toe slice dividing body into right and left sides
Mid-sa­gittal/ median plane
At the mid line, equal right and left halves
Transverse Plane
Slice that cuts the body into superior and inferior parts
Coronal or frontal plane
Slice that cuts the body into anterior and posterior parts

Body Parts

Upper Limb
arm, forearm, wrist, hand
Lower Limb
thigh, leg, ankle, foot
Trunk
thorax, abdomen, pelvis
 

Tissue Types

Connective
Epithelial
Nervous
Muscle
Different types of tissues can be grouped together to form an organ.
Skin= Epidermis (epith­elial tissue) + Dermis (conne­ctive tissue)
Heart=­Out­erwall (epith­elial & Connec­tiv­e)+­Middle (muscl­e)+­Inner Wall (epith­elial & connec­tive)

Charac­ter­istics Essential for Life

Organi­zation
Metabolism
Respon­siv­eness
Growth
Develo­pment
Reprod­uction

Control of Homeos­tasis

Physical Insults
exercise, cut in hand
Chemical in the Internal Enviro­nment
Glucos­e/Salt fluxua­tions
Physio­logical Stress­/Im­balance
Flu Shot
Disrup­tions (long and short term)
Short: Exercise Long: cells stop producing dopamine --> Parkinsons
Homeos­tatic Imbala­nces: Normal equili­brium of body processes are disrupted

Intro Terms for Body Orient­ation

Anatomical position
Standing, facing forward, palms forward
Supine
when laying face up
Prone
When laying face down
Superior
The head is above the shoulders
Inferior
The shoulders are below the head
Caudal
Towards the tail
Cranial/ Cephalic
Towards the head
Proximal
Closer to you
Anterior
Front
Posterior/ Dorsal
Back
Lateral
off to the side of the midline
Medial
Towards the midline
Superf­icial
On the surface
Deep
Inside