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Biology HS cells and energy Cheat Sheet by

Chemical Energy and ATP

ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added
Energy is used and it turns back into ADP-repeat
Carbs make ATP the most
Fats store the most NRG
Proteins are the least likely to be broken down to make ATP


Lactic acid fermen­tation
Alcoholic fermen­tation
occurs in muscle
1. glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermen­tation
1. glycolysis splits glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules
2. NRG from 2 NADH is used to split 2 pyruvate into 2 alcohol molecules and 2 CO2
2. 2 pyruvates and 2 NADH enter fermen­tation
3. NADH is recycled back into NAD+
3. NRG from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid
4. NAD+ is recycled to glycolysis
NADH changed back to NAD+
used in food production and by bacteria
-Does not produce ATP

photos­ynt­hesis vs. cell respir­ation

Cell respir­ation
in chloro­plasts
in mitoch­ondria
reactants- CO2, water, NRG
reactants- sugar, oxygen, NRG
ETC-th­ylakoid membrane
ETC- inner membrane
chem rxn cycles­-calvin cycle
krebs cycle
products- sugar, oxygen
CO2, water, ATP
ETC- electron transport chain


light-­dep­endent rxn/ Stage 1
Stage 2/Calvin Cycle/­lig­ht-­indep
grana- stacks of coin shaped membranes; each compar­tment is called a thylakoid
stroma­-fluid that surrounds grana-­stage 2: light indep
grana-­stage 1- light dependent reactions
1. CO2 molecules are added to 5 carbon molecu­les=6 carbon molecule
Stage 1: sunlight is absorbed, NRG transf­erred along thylakoid membrane to stage 2-oxygen released.
2. NRG from stage 1 is used by enzymes to split 6 carbon into 2 3 carbons
photos­ystem 2- capture and transfer NRG
3. 1 high NRG 3 carbon molecule leaves cycle. After 2 3 carbon molecules have left, they bonf together to make a 6 carbon molecule
1. e- enter ETC
2. e- and H+ are released and O is released as a waste
3. e- move from protein to protein releasing NRG to pump H+ ions in thylakoid
photos­ystem 1- captures NRG & produces NRG carrying molecules
4. e- are energized and leave the thylakoid membrane
5. NADPH is transf­erred to light indep rxn
6. concen­tration of H+ ions is higher inside thylakoid membrane
6 cont. difference is called chemio­smotic gradient & stores NRG-ions flow through protein channel by diffusion
7. adds phosphate group to ADP as H+ ions flow through
photos­ynt­hesis formula- 6CO2+6­H20­→→→­→C6­H12­O6+6O2

Cell Respir­ation

Krebs Cycle
Electron transport chain
Does not require oxygen
produces NRG carrying molecules
uses NADH and FADH2 to make ATP
splits glucose into 2 three carbon molecules
1. pyruvate is broken down
H+ ions flow through protein channel in membrane
produces 2 ATP molecules
2. interm­ediate molecule enters w?/ CoA
ATP synthase produces ATP
3. citric acid is formed
water is formed when oxygen picks up e- and H+ ions
4. citric acid is broken down, CO2 is released, NADh is made
5. 5-carbon molecule is broken down, CO2 is released, NADH & ATP are made
6. 4-carbon molecule is rearra­nged, NADH and FADH2 are made
takes place in the matrix
Cell respir­ation takes place in the mitoch­ondria
formula- C6H12O­6+6­O2→­→→→­6CO­2+6H2O

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