Show Menu
Cheatography

Russian Verbs Cheat Sheet by

The basics of Russian conjugation including verbal aspect, moods and tenses

Infinitive endings

-ть / -ти / -чь

Verbal Aspect (how the action takes place)

Imper­fective Aspect
Perfe­ctive Aspect
Describes action of a general nature, things in progress, and repetitive or habitual actions
Emphasizes completion of an action or have a restri­cted, focused meaning
Adverbs often used with imperf­ect­ives: всегд́а, каждый день, иногда́, часто́, обы́чно, и т.д.
Adverbs that suggest comple­tion: вдруг, наконе́ц, совсе́м, сра́зу, и т.д.
Note: the perfective aspect does not have a present tense (the present, by defini­tion, cannot be comple­ted).

Mnemonic: the Im­per­fective is In­finite (long period of time)

The Subjun­ctive Mood

бы + past tense of the verb
Expresses desire, fervent hope, hypoth­eses, contra­ry-­to-fact statements
Note: the perfective aspect is used for positive statements whereas the imperf­ective aspect is used for negative statem­ents.
N.B. "­бы" is sometimes shortened as "­б"
 

The Present Tense

 
Conj­ugation Class I (- е - type)
Conj­ugation Class II (-и- type)
я
-ю/(-у)
-ю/(-у)
ты
-ешь/-ёшь
-ишь
он (она́, оно́)
-ет/-ёт
-ит
мы
-ем/-ём
-им
вы
-ете/ёте
-ите
они́
-ют/(-ут)
-ят/(-ат)
Spelling rule: after г, к, х, ж and ч, -ю becomes -у and -я becomes -а.
Note: a lot of Russian verbs are irregu­lar.

The Past Tense (for both aspects)

Masculine (я,ты, он)
Stem + л
Feminine (я, ты, она́)
Stem + ла
Neuter (оно́)
Stem + ло
Plural (мы, вы, они́)
Stem + ли

The Imperative Mood

ты
-ай
вы
-айте
-ите
-ьте
Note: For the first person singular, use "­дав­ай" + infinitive (imper­fec­tiv­e)/or the 1st person singular of the future tense (perfe­cti­ve).
Note2: For the first person plural, use "­дав­айт­е" + infinitive (imper­fec­tiv­e)/or the 1st person plural of the future tense (perfe­cti­ve).
 

The Future Tense

 
Impe­rfe­ctive aspect
Perf­ective aspect
 
Used when there is a general statement in the future, an indication of duration or time, for politeness
Expresses the action as a complete event
я
бу́ду + infinitive
-ю/(-у)
ты
бу́дешь + infinitive
-ешь/-ёшь ; -ишь
он/ она́/оно́
бу́дет + infinitive
-ет/-ёт ; -ит
мы
бу́дем + infinitive
-ем/-ём ; -им
вы
бу́дете + infinitive
-ете/-ёте ; -ите
они́
бу́дут + infinitive
-ют/(-ут) ; -ят/(-ат)
Note: the future tense in the imperf­ective aspect is also known as the compound future

Reflexive Verbs (-ся- verbs)

Add -ся if the conjugated verb ends with a vowel
Add -сь if the conjugated verb ends with a consonant

Help Us Go Positive!

We offset our carbon usage with Ecologi. Click the link below to help us!

We offset our carbon footprint via Ecologi
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.