molarity |
M = moles solute/L solution |

dilution |
Mc x Lc = Md x Ld |
Mc x mLc = Md x mLd (product in millimoles) |
c: concentrated; d: diluted |

kinetic energy |
Ek = 1/2 mu^{2} |

average kinetic energy of a group of gas molecules |
u^{2} = uN^{2}/N |
u^{2}: average speed for all the molecules in the sample; mean square speed |
N: number of molecules in sample |

total kinetic energy of one mole of any gas |
Ek = 3/2 RT |
R: 8.314 J/K x mol |
T: temperature in Kelvin |

root-mean-square-speed |
Urms = square root of 3RT/molar mass |
R: 8.314 J/K x mol |
molar mass in kg/mol |

comparing Urms values of molecules in different gas samples |
Urms(1)/Urms(2) = square root of molar mass (2)/molar mass (1) |

graham’s law |
rate = 1/square root of molar mass |
rate of diffusion or effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass |

pressure |
P= force/area |
SI unit of force: Newton (1 N = 1kg x m/s^{2}) |
SI unit of pressure: pascal (Pa; 1 Pa = 1 N/m^{2}) |

pressure exerted by a column of fluid |
P = hdg |
P: pressure in Pa |
h: height of column in meters |
d: density of fluid in kg/m^{3} |
g: gravitational constant - 9.80665 m/s^{2} |

boyles law |
P1V1=P2V2 |
pressure of a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas |

charles law |
V1/T1=V2/T2 |
volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas |

avogadros law |
V1/n1=V2/n2 |
volume of a sample of gas at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles in the sample |

combined gas law |
P1V1/n1T1=P2V2/n2T2 |
P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 |

ideal gas equation |
PV=nRT |
R: 0.08206 L x atm/K x mol |
T and n: K and mol |
P and V: atm and L |

density of a gas |
d = P(molar mass)/RT |
molar mass in kg/mol |
R: 0.08206 L x atm/K x mol |

molar mass of a gas |
molar mass = dRT/P |
R: 0.08206 L x atm/K x mol |
molar mass: in kg/mol |

van der waals equation |
(P + an^{2}/V^{2})(V - nb) = nRT |
a and b depend on the element |

compressibility factor |
Z = PV/RT |

partial pressure |
P total = sum of partial pressures |

mole fraction |
Xi = ni/n total |
Xi = Pi/P total |
Xi x n total = ni |
Xi x P total = Pi |

amount of reactant consumed |
n = P x (V/RT) at constant volume and temperature |
n: number of moles consumed |
P: change in pressure |

pressure exerted over water |
P total = P O2 + P H2O |

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