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Chemistry Chemical Equations Cheat Sheet by

Chemical Equations, reactants, products, etc.

Chemical Equations

chemical reaction
process that neither creates nor destroys atoms, but that rearranges atoms in chemical compounds. involve changes in energy.
chemical equation
uses chemical symbols to denote what occurs in a chemical reaction.
a chemical equation represents a chemical statement.
each chemical species that appears to the left of the arrow.
substances that are consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.
each species that appears to the right of the arrow.
substances that form during the course of a chemical reaction.
gases, liquids, and solids are labeled with (g), (l), and (s).
aqueous: chemical species that are dissolved in water; labeled (aq)
some nonmetals exist as polyatomic molecules: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and P4.

Balancing Chemical Equations

law of conser­vation of mass
atoms can neither be created nor destroyed.
stoich­iom­etric coeffi­cients
numeric values written to the left of each species in a chemical equation to balance the equation.


stoich­iom­etric amount
quantity of reactant in the same relative amount as that repres­ented in the balanced chemical equation.
limiting reactant
reactant used up first in a reaction, limits the amount of product that can form.
excess reactant
present in quantities greater than necessary to react with the quantity of the limiting reactant.
theore­tical yield
amount of product that forms when all the limiting reactant reacts to form the desired product; maximum obtainable yield, predicted by the balanced equation (the limiting reactant produces the theore­tical yield).
actual yield
amount of product actually obtained from a reaction; almost always less than the theore­tical yeild.
percent yield
determines the efficiency of a chemical reaction
% yield = actual yield/­the­ore­tical yield (100%)
temper­ature and pressure can affect percent yield.
atom economy
theore­tical determ­ination of how much of the starting mass of reactants can end up in the final mass of the desired product.
atom economy = sum of molar mass of desired produc­t/sum of molar masses of reactants (100%)

Types of Reactions

combin­ation reaction
two or more reactants combine to form a single product - A + B --> AB
decomp­osition reaction
two or more products form a single reactant; opposite of combin­ation reaction - AB --> A + B
combustion reaction
substance burns in the presence of oxygen. produces carbon dioxide gas and water.

Combustion Analysis

combustion analysis
experi­mental determ­ination of an empirical formula by a reaction with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
organic compounds
containing C, H, and O, are carried out using an apparatus in combustion analysis.


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