Speed, Distance, Time
Speed 
measured in metres per second, ms1 
Distance 
measured in metres, m 
Time 
measured in seconds, s, a measure of how long something takes 
D=VxT 
distance = velocity x time 
Distance Time Graphs 
line upwards=getting farther away 
line downwards=getting closer 
flat line=staying still 
Force
force = mass x acceleration 
Fnet=ma 
weight is a force measured in Newtons which changes depending on where you are eg. Earth vs. Mars 
mass is the amount of matter contained in an object measured in kilograms. 
Effect of doubling the mass or force 
if you double the mass but keep the force the same, acceleration will be halved 
if you double the force, acceleration will be doubled 
Work
the measure of energy transfer when an object is moved over a distance 
W=Fd 
Work (J) = Force (N) x Distance (m) 
When work is done to an object, the object gains energy 
When an object does work, it loses energy 
work done=energy lost or gained 
The Ramp Question 
If one ball is thrown up a ramp and the other is dragged up, both balls will gain the same amount of gravitational potential energy assuming they are lifted to the same height, so the work done will be equal, assuming no energy is lost as heat and sound. 


Acceleration/Decceleration
Acceleration 
a measure of how fast your speed is increasing, symbol is 'a', measured in ms2 
Deceleration 
a measure of how fast your speed is decreasing 
Speed Time Graphs 
line upwards=constant acceleration 
line downwards=constant deceleration 
flat line=constant speed 
area under the graph=distance travelled 
Friction and Pressure
friction is caused when things rub against each other 
friction transfers kinetic energy into heat and sound energy 
friction increases when rougher or larger surfaces contact 
friction ALWAYS opposes motion 
it is measured in Newtons, N 
Air Resistance is a form of friction affecting all objects moving through the air 
Terminal Velocity occurs when forces become equal and opposite so they are their constant, maximum speed 
Eg. when a parachute opens the force of air resistance increases because the surface area has increased. This causes the parachuter to decelerate. 
pressure is a force spread over an area 
High Pressure is a force spread over a small area 
Low Pressure is a force spread over a large area 
P=F/A where P is measured in Pa, F is N, and A is ㎡. 
Power
*the speed at which work is done 
P=W/T where P is measured in W, W is J, T is s 
eg. if you walk up stairs slowly or quickly the same amount of work has been done. However, doing it faster means you have used more power. 
Unrelated to Power
1/2 the acceleration means twice the mass
Acceleration in freefall has a value equal to the strength of gravity and so is 10ms2 on Earth
Weight and gravity force have the same value


Forces
forces can be a push, pull, twist, or turn. 
forces are measured in Newtons (N) 
when the forces on an object are unbalanced, that object moves 
only comment/draw uneven forces unless told otherwise 
always have arrows pointing away from the object 
always have arrows touching the object 
the forces are thrust, friction, gravity, and air resistance or support 
balanced forces mean the object is stationary or travelling at constant speed 
unbalanced forces mean the object will either speed up, slow down, or change direction 
Energy
is measured in Joules, J 
Kinetic Energy is the energy possessed by a moving object 
the more mass the object obtains and the faster it moves, the more kinetic energy it has 
Ek=1/2mv^2 
Gravitational Potential Energy is the energy stored in an object because it has been raised a certain height above the ground against the force of gravity 
Ep=mgh 
Types of Energy 
nonstored energy: 
stored/potential energy: 
 light and sound 
gravitational (height) 
kinetic (movement) 
elastic (spring) 
heat 
nuclear (atoms) 
electrical 
chemical (batteries) 
Conservation of Energy 
energy is neither created nor destroyed, it is only transferred from one state to another 
when energy is converted from one form to another, a proportion is lost as heat and sound energy due to the force of friction 

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