had advanced features & Data structures
arrays and records never implemented
Short code developed by John Mauchly 1949.
Mathematical expressions were coded.
50x slower than machine code
IBM 701 John Backus 1954
conditional & unconditional branching
automatic incrementing of address register
Pseudocode expanded into machine code
Fortran 77: 1978
logical loop control statement
Fortran 95 & 2003 & 2008
Relatively minor changes
COBOL(common business oriented language)
Dennis Ritchie & Brian Kernighan
Hypertext Preprocessor, Rasmus Lerdorf
service side HTML
-Fortran 0: 1954 not implemented
-Fortran 1: 1957
designed for the IBM 704
index registers & floating point hardware
led to compiled programs
computer memory was small & unreliable
created for scientific applications
no programming methodology or tools
hardware was expensive
no data types
i,j,k,l,m,n were implicitly integers.
Fortran II 1958
Fixed problems with Fortran I
independent compilation of subroutines
Fortran IV 1960-1962
Explicit type declarations
Logical selection statement(if)
subprogram names could be parameters
(subprogram = functions)
ANSI standard in 1966
ALGOL 60: Success/Failures
never a commercial success
not widely used in the U.S.
lack of support from IBM.
Lack of I/0.
too flexible, hard to implement.
popularity of Fortran.
designed at MIT by McCarthy
data is processed in Lists (rather than arrays)
symbolic computation (rather than numeric)
-2 data types: atoms & lists
-syntax based on lambda calculus
-Pioneered functional programming
no variables or assignment
program controlled with application of functions: recursion, conditional expressions.
Related to LISP
COBOL Design process
C++(descendant of ALGOL)
Basic(Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Inst. Code)
Basic design goal
Minimal impact on current languages.
-SIMULA 67 extension of ALGOL
Descendant of Algol