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Psychology 112 - Test 1 Cheat Sheet by

Origins of Prejudice

Psycho­logical Function
people inflate their own self-worth by disliking groups they see as inferior
Social and Cutlural Function
by disliking "­the­m", we feel closer to others who are like us
Economic Function
legiti­mized unequal economic treatment

Conception to First Year

conception to implan­tation
implan­tation to 8 weeks
8 weeks to birth

Stages of Cognitive Develo­pment

Sensor­imotor Stage (0-2)
learning through concrete actions, coordi­nates sensory inform­ation with bodily movements, major accomp­lis­hment is object permanence
Preope­rat­ional Stage (2-7)
focused on limita­tions in children's thinking, engage in egocentric thinking (inability to take answer persons perspe­ctive), cannot grasp concept of conser­vation
Concrete Operat­ional Stage (7-12)
earlier limita­tions overcome but primarily with concrete inform­ation, continue to make errors in reasoning about abstract concepts, understand principles of conser­vation, revers­ibi­lity, cause and effect
Formal Operations Stage (12+)
teenagers become capable of abstract reasoning, ideas/­con­cepts

ABC model of attitudes

Affective Component
how we feel towards an object (ABC Model)
Behavioral Component
how we behave towards and object (ABC Model)
Cognitive Component
what we believe about an object (ABC Model)

Three Types of Lovers

Secure Attachment Styles
find it relatively easy to become close to others and are comfor­table depending on lovers and being depended on.
Avoidant Attachment Styles
somewhat uncomf­ortable being close to others and have difficulty trusting others and depending on them.
Anxiou­s-A­mbi­valent Attachment Styles
worry that their lovers are less interested in closeness that they are.

Factors Leading to Disobe­dience

1) when the experi­menter left the room
2) when the victim was right there in the room
3) when two experi­menters issued confli­cting demands
4) when the person ordering them to continue was an ordinary man
5) when the partic­ipant worked with peers who refused to go further


1) German measles (rubella)
2) x-rays or other radiation and toxic chemicals such as lead
3) sexually transm­itted disease
4) cigarette smoking
5) regular consum­ption of alcohol (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
6) drugs other than alcohol

Parenting Styles

1. author­itarian
2. permissive
3. author­itative

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Develo­pment

Level One: Pre-co­nve­ntional reasoning (indiv­idual)
Stage One: Obedience and punishment
morality is external, rules are fixed and absolute, obey rules to avoid punishment
Level One: Pre-co­nve­ntional reasoning (indiv­idual)
Stage Two: Indivi­dualism and exchange
recognize individual point of view, judge actions based on how they serve individual interests
Level Two: Conven­tional reasoning (society)
Stage Three: Interp­ersonal relati­onship
focus on living up to sical expect­ations and roles, emphasis on conormity and being nice, consid­ering how choices affect social relati­onship
Level Two: Conven­tional reasoning (society)
Stage Four: Mainta­ining Social Order
consider osicety as a whole, focus on mainta­ining law and order, follow the rules, doing your duty and respect authority
Level Three: Post-c­onv­ent­ional (universal principles of justice)
Stage Five: Social contract and individual rights
rules of law are important for mainta­ining society, but memebers of society should agree on the rules, social contract,
Level Three: Post-c­onv­ent­ional (universal principles of justice)
Stage Six: Universal Principles
morality is internal, reasoning based on universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning, follow intern­alized principles of justice even if they are in conflict with laws and rules

Types of Tasks

Addictive Tasks
members preform parallel actions
Conjun­ctive Task
the members are only productive as its weakest members.
Group Dynamics
member­ships or partic­ipation in a group influences our thoughts and behaviors.
Disjun­ctive Task
requires a single solution the most competent person in the group is likely to provide the solution.
Divisible Tasks
involve the simult­ane­ously perfor­mance of several different activi­ties, the different strengths of group members complement one another.

Symptoms of Groupthink

1) illusion if invuln­era­bility
2) self-c­ens­orship
3) pressure on dissenters to conform
4) an illusion of unamity

5 Key Factors to Liking Someone

1) Similarity
2) Proximity
3) Self-D­isc­louser
4) Situat­ional Factors
5) Physical Attrac­tiv­eness

Factors that promote insecure attachment

1) abando­nment and depriv­ation in the first two years of life
2) parenting that is abusive, neglectful or erratic because the parent is chroni­cally irresp­onsible or depressed
3) the child's own geneti­cally influenced temper­ament
4) changing, stressful circum­stances in the child family.


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