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Homeostasis Cheat Sheet by

Homeos­tasis

Nervous System
rapid response to stimuli via electrical signals
Endo­crine System
long-term response using chemical signals (hormones)

Homeos­tatic Mechanisms

Sensor
detects enviro­nmental stimulus
Inte­gra­tor
receives and processes signals
Effe­ctor
cells respond to regulatory signals

Feedback Mechanisms

Negative Feedback
primary mechanism of homeos­tasis. Used to produce opposite effect of the change and bring back to homeos­tasis.
Positive Feedback
increases the effects of change produced by enviro­nmental stimulus. Does not bring back to homeos­tasis.
Thermo- regulation
Conduc­tion, Convec­tion, Radiation, Evapor­ation
 

Thermo­reg­ulation

Heat Stress
1) Moni­tor
 
thermo­rec­eptors of peripheral nervous system detect increased temp
 
2) Coor­din­ate
 
hypoth­alamus signals CNS via motor nerves to sweat glands
 
3) Regu­late
 
sweat glands initiate sweating, blood vessels dilate
Cold Stress
1) Moni­tor
 
thermo­rec­eptors signal hypoth­alamus using sensory neurons
 
2) Coor­din­ate
 
hypoth­alamus sends message via motor neurons
 
3) Regu­late
 
arterioles and smooth muscle of skin contract, captures heat, skeletal muscles contract- shivering
 

Osmore­gul­ation

Osmo­sis
water from high conc. to low conc.
Osmo­reg­ula­tion
regulating osmotic pressure of bodily fluids and cells, management of bodies water and solute content
Excr­etion
compos­ition of bodily fluids. regulation of blood pH, volume, and pressure. Excretion of metabolic waste.

Nitrog­enous Waste

Ammo­nia
released when liver breaks down proteins - by deamin­ation. Very soluble and toxic. Must be diluted w/ H2O
Urea
product of Ammonia and CO2. Conversion occurs in liver. Low toxicity.
Uric Acid
product of nucleic acid breakdown. Released through liver metabo­lism. Non toxic and insoluble in H2O

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