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Grade 12 Philosophy reviewer Cheat Sheet by

Philosophy Reviewer for Periodical Test


-Love of wisdom

Nature of Philosophy

Always in the quest for an explan­ation
Key Interr­ogative words

Types of Search

merely asking
intense search for deeper meaning

Origin of Philosophy

Miletus, Greece
the birthplace of philosophy in the west
Thales of Miletus
first philos­opher in the west
Thales asked "What is the ultimate stuff of the univer­se"
Answer he found: Water

Philos­ophical activity

widest genera­liz­ations
Philos­ophers talk about the truth, the good, the just, the beautiful, and the existence of practi­cally all things
knowledge wont make sense without philos­ophical ideas like consci­ousness and existence
desire to integrate things into one coherent whole
find the One in the many

Branches of Philosophy

about human reality like the origin and existence
nature of the human knowledege and how to obtain it
moral questions and dillemas
establish the criteria of beauty
deals with correct reasoning

Need for philos­oph­izing

All men desire to know
to quench his sense of wonder
Rene Descartes
to doubt
the start of wisdom is docta ignorantia
Karl Jaspers
because of experience
docta ignorantia
-limit­ation of human knowledge


-died for the truth
-was accused of corrupting the citizens of Athens

Types of Thinking

Holistic Perspe­ctive
conclu­sions are made without looking at all sides of the problem
Partial Point of View
looking at all aspects of the situation and then making a conclusion


requires a person to be willing to examine one's thoughts,
feelings, and actions and to learn more about one's life

Philos­ophical Reflection

- When a person conducts in a philos­ophical reflec­tion, he is able to judge whether his actions or decisions are reasonable or
not by thinking of deeper questions and reflecting on the situation.

Steps in Philos­ophical Reflection

Learning from past mistakes and not repeaating them
Evaluating the best options from the options
Have a holistic point of view before making conclusion

Theories of Truth

Corres­pon­dence Theory of Truth
concepts are true when they correspond to the reality of the world.
Coherence Theory of Truth
ideas are inter-­related system
Pragmatic Theory of Truth
A pragmatist can consider something to be true without needing to confirm that it is univer­sally true.

Tips in Evaluating Opinions

knowing the origin of the inform­ation
reputation and credib­ility of the person
reason for the opinion
once accepts as fuct but no effort to prove it

Methods of Philos­oph­izing

Methodic Doubt
any claim that can be doubted is not believable
Socratic Method
teache­r-s­tudent, one ask question, one answers
exchange of logical arguments
gaining conclusion from scientific experi­ments, methods etc
based on trying to understand past human affairs


Ad hominem
attacking the person not the argument
Ad baculum
appeal by force
Ad miseri­cordiam
appeal by using pity and emotion
Ad populum
bandwagon, acceptable because many are accepting it
Ad Antiqu­itatem
acceptable because it has been true for a long time
Petitio Principii
begging the question
Fallacy of Compos­ition
combining words instead of taking them seperately
Fallacy of division
assuming that if its true for the whole is also true for each parts
Ad verecu­ndiam
appeal by shame
Dicto Simpli­citer
argument based on unqual­ified genera­liz­ation

Concepts in Method of Philos­oph­izing

something that can be verified as true
statements with conviction that are not easily explained by facts
statements that assume the claim to be true and provide reasons
judgement based on facts
arguments based on faulty reasoning
provides reasons to convince reader or listener for a claim to be true
disapr­opo­rti­onate weight in favor or against something. Can be both positive and negative.


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