The Forgotten Holocaust of WW2, review for CH 751 at DDS May 2016
This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.
Japan invades Manchuria (China)
Japan annexed all territory north of Beijing and began full invasion of China
December 13, 1937
Nanking falls to the Japanese
Nanking War Crimes Tribunal established (in China)
International Military Tribunal for the Far East, war crimes trial (in Japan)
Nanking Memorial opens
The Wartime Diaries of Minnie Vautrin and Tsen Shui-Fang
Written December 1937-March 1938
The Rape of Nanking Iris Chang
“Today, a soldier came and spotted a girl outside. He carried the girl to the bamboo place behind #300 building and stripped her clothing. When he was about to rape the girl, Vautrin raced to there shouting. The soldier fled. It was fortunate the girl was not molested because of prompt action taken" (79)
War Diaries of Minnie Vautrin and Tsen Shui-Fang
1. Timeline of Events
1.1. Invasion of Manchuria
1.2. Japanese Attack
1.3. Japanese Occupation
2.1. John Rabe
2.2. Minnie Vautrin
2.3. The International Safety Zone
3.1.1. Westerners’ reports
3.1.2. Victims’ reports
3.1.3. Perpetrators’ reports
3.2.1. Western disbelief
3.2.2. Japanese denial
3.2.3. Chinese reaction
4. Memory and identity
4.1. Yakusuni Shrine
4.2. Nanking Memorial
General Iwane Matsui
d. 1948. General technically in charge of Japanese troops, although was not actually in Nanking for most of what happened because of poor health from Shanghai. One of only 2 Japanese who were executed during the US led Tokyo trials.
Prince Yasuhiko Asaka
d. 1981. The Emperor's uncle who was put in charge in place of Iwane, in charge of Japanese forces during Nanking Massacre, but was never charged.
Wilhemmina "Minnie" Vautrin
d. 1941. American woman who turned Ginling College in the Safety Zone into refuge for women and children.
d. 1950. German businessman and chair of Nazi party in Nanking, helped establish/keep Safety Zone safe. Leveraged his position as a Nazi to combat Japanese atrocities
d. 1953. Anglican pastor and source of many photos and much of the video of Nanking, despite only being there for the first few days.
3 All Policy
Japanese policy of war: Kill All, Burn All, Take All. It is a policy of annihilation and total war, this was put into place in Nanking.
The warrior ethos in the Japanese military. Was the basis of all ethical training for Japanese soldiers, it is a warrior code emphasizing moral rectitude, honor, and above all obedience. Obedience even to the point of detriment to yourself or your family.
1961. Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram designed experiment where a participant would "shock" another "participant" at the command of the administrator, to analyze the effect of authority and obedience. 65% went up to the highest level of shock.
Memorial for Japanese war dead, where those involved in Nanking massacre are honored and remembered. Emperor still visits this Shrine. Example of Japanese purposeful neglect of remembering the truth of Nanking.