Act of Supremacy; Henry VIII becomes head of Church of England
Henry VIII becomes king of England, marries Catherine of Aragon
95 Theses at Wittenberg
Pope Leo X rewards Henry VIII for his written attack on Luther by granting him the title "Fidei Defensor" ("Defender of the Faith")
Henry decides to divorce Catherine; she appeals to Rome
Henry VIII of England breaks with Catholicism; becomes head of the English Church Henry marries (pregnant) Anne Boleyn
Pope Clement VII declares marriage to Catherine of Aragon valid
Ten Articles; Anne Boleyn executed; Henry Marries Jane Seymour (d. 1537)
Henry marries Anne of Cleves in January; Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves is annulled in July; marries Catherine Howard; Society of Jesus formed in September
Colloquy of Regensburg (failed attempt at Protestant-Catholic reconciliation)
Catherine Howard beheaded for adultery
Henry marries Catherine Parr
Henry VIII dies; Edward VI becomes king of England
Catholicism reestablished in England by Queen Mary
John Knox publishes The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women
Foxe's Book of [Protestant, mostly English] Martyrs published
August 24, St. Bartholomew's Day, about 3,000 Protestants in Paris are massacred. Across France within three days approximately 20,000 Huguenots are executed.
Council of Trent adjourns
Gregorian calendar adopted by Catholic countries (but not Protestant ones)
Spanish Armada defeated by England's Sir Francis Drake
Tolerance between Catholic and Protestants proclaimed in the Edict of Nantes by France's Henry IV
Elizabeth I dies; James I of Scotland becomes James VI of England
King James Bible published
Politics and Religion interact
This lecture is about the 16th century in England (the English Reformation, and the birth of the Anglican Church). It started as Catholic, but by the end was very Protestant. England’s reforms came top down (unlike Germany) and was triggered by King Henry VIII wanting to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He separated the Church from the Pope/RCC (but, there was still a mixture of Catholic/non-Catholic doctrine and action floating around). After Henry was his 9 year old son Edward VI, but really the Protestant clergy ruled through him to get rid of Catholic things. When he died, Mary I came to the throne and put everything back to Catholic and started killing Protestants. Finally, Elizabeth I took throne and slowly started to put everything back to Protestantism and by the end of the 16th century, really in the last 20 years of her reign, the country was primarily Protestant.
Henry VII of Lancaster
Married Elizabeth of York, ending the War of the Roses
8 wives, monarch who split England from the Catholic Church
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII's first wife, daughter was Mary I
Henry VIII's second wife who he had beheaded, daughter was Elizabeth I
Henry VIII's third wife, died in childbirth giving birth to Edward VI
Died of TB at 15
"Bloody Mary" Catholic queen, married Philip of Spain, she died of influenza at 42
First Ruling Queen of England, Protestant Queen, 2nd longest reigning monarch
d. 1536 Translated the Bible into English, even after the Archbishop said no out of fear a bible would make people anti-Church. His English translation sold 16,000 illegal copies in England in the next 10 years. Was eventually killed for it
The Great Bible
1538, Henry VIII announced this as the 1st authorized English translation. This was the 1st official bible of the Church of England
Act of Supremacy
1553. This was King Henry VIII's response to being excommunicated. It declares independence from Rome and Henry wrote this, passed it through Parliament, and required every bishop in England to sign it or die.
Dissolution of the Monasteries
1536. Henry VIII needed money for War, and Oliver Cromwell had idea of raiding and dissolving the monasteries. The King took over ecclesiastical lands, and taxes were paid to him rather than Rome.
1536, 10 Articles, written by Thomas Cramner, were published and became the first guidelines of the Church of England. They were a mixture of Protestant and Catholic theology, still, though (kept sacrament of penance, purgatory, and veneration of Mary)
Act for the Advancement of True Religion
1543, King Henry VIII passed this, and it said only clergy could read the Bible, because evil minds have intention of ruining true understnading of the Bible. They literally took the Great Bible and chained it to the pulpits, and the only people allowed to read were the wealthy and the clergy
Book of Common Prayer
(Date) was a compromise between the Order of Communion in 1548, which had English prayer in the middle of the Latin mass and confused everyone. Would be a point of conflict for about a 100 years, but was intended as a way of delineating who can say what and who can't.
1558-1559, consists of the Act of Supremacy, and Act of Uniformity. Act of Supremacy, Elizabeth I reestablishes independence from Rome, and Parliament conferred her the title "Supreme Governor of the Church of England"
Act of Uniformity
1559, reestablished the Book of Common Prayer which outlined what form the English church should take.
Acts and Monuments
1563, 3rd foundational text (along with BCP and Act of Supremacy). It has stories of martyrs, exemplary lives, and discusses moral instruction and historical meaning. Has Elizabeth I as a second Deborah elected by God to complete the Reformation. Protestantism was depicted as true Church. Would have a huge impact on America.