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Anatomy and Physiology - Reproductive System Cheat Sheet by

A brief overview of the male and female reproductive systems

Reprod­uctive Organs

Primary sex organs (Gonads)
• Testes in males
• Ovaries in females
▪ Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete
• Sperm—male gametes
• Ova (eggs)­—female gametes
Secondary sex organs: Provide the route by which sex
cells unite

Male Reprod­uctive System

Vas Deferens
Accessory Glands
The penis and the scrotum are the external portions of the male reprod­uctive system. Inside the scrotum reside two testes, the organs that manufa­cture sperm and produce the male hormone testos­terone
The vas deferens travels up through the spermatic cord, into the pelvic cavity, over the ureter to the prostate, and behind the bladder.
Prostate Gland: Encircles the urethra and ejacul­atory duct. --Secrets a thin, milky, alkaline fluid into urethra. --Adds volume to semen and comprises 30% of the fluid portion of semen
Extending from the abdomen to each testicle is a strand of connective tissue called the spermatic cord; the sperm duct (vas deferens) as well as blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves lie within the cord
As the vas deferens turns downward, it joins the seminal vesicle to form the ejacul­atory duct. (There are two ejacul­atory ducts: one for each testis.) The ejacul­atory ducts pass through the prostate and empty into the urethra.
Seminal Vesicles: secretes a thick, yellowish fluid into the ejacul­atory duct. The fluid comprises about 60% of semen; it contains fructose (an energy source for sperm motility) and substances that nourish and ensure sperm motility
Two small, oval testes lie suspended in a sac of tissue called the scrotum.
Ejacul­atory Duct empties into the urethra, moving sperm via PERIST­ALSIS
Bulbou­rethra Glands: secrete a clear fluid into the penile portion of the urethra during sexual arousal. Besides serving as a lubricant for sexual interc­ourse, the fluid also neutra­lizes the acidity of residual urine in the urethra, which would harm the sperm.
The median septum divides the scrotum.
The cremaster muscle surrounds the spermatic cord and testis. In cold weather, it contracts to draw the testes closer to the body for warmth.


Milky white mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions
Components of accessory gland secretions
65% of volume comes from seminal vesicles
Liquid portion acts as a transport medium to dilute sperm
30% comes from prostate gland
Sperm are stream­lined cellular “tadpoles”
5% comes from bulbou­rethral gland
Fructose provides energy for sperm cells
Emitted during the ejacul­ation that accomp­anies orgasm, semen is a whitish fluid containing both sperm and the fluid secretions of the accessory glands. Each ejacul­ation expels between 2 and 5 ml of semen containing between 40 and 100 million sperm.
Alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidic enviro­nment of vagina
Immedi­ately after ejacul­ation, semen becomes sticky and jelly-­like. This promotes fertil­ization by allowing the semen to stick to the walls of the vagina and cervix instead of immedi­ately draining out. The alkalinity of semen counte­racts the acidity of the vagina; this is important because sperm become immobile in an acidic enviro­nment.
Semen inhibits bacteria

Male Reprod­uctive

Male Reprod­uctive System - External Genitalia

Regions of the penis
Male organ of copulation that delivers sperm into the female reprod­uctive tract
Internally there are three areas of spongy erectile tissue around the urethra
Glans Penis - Enlarged tip
Erections occur when this erectile tissue fills with blood during sexual excitement
Prepuce - Forskin
--Prepuce is often removed with circum­cision


1-Sperm begin as sperma­tog­onia, primitive sex cells located in the walls of the semini­ferous tubules.
Sperm Production
Sperm are formed in the semini­ferous tubules of the testis
2-Sper­mat­ogonia divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells, each with 46 chromo­somes.
Begins at puberty and continues throughout life
Sperma­togonia (primitive stem cells) begin the process by dividing rapidly
3-These cells then differ­entiate into slightly larger cells called primary sperma­toc­ytes, which move toward the lumen of the semini­ferous tubule.
Millions of sperm are made every day
During puberty, follic­le-­sti­mul­ating hormone (FSH) is secreted in increasing amounts
4-Through meiosis, the primary sperma­tocyte yields two geneti­cally unique secondary sperma­toc­ytes, each with 23 chromo­somes.
5-Each secondary sperma­tocyte divides again to form two sperma­tids.
6- Spermatids differ­entiate to form heads and tails and eventually transform into mature sperma­tozoa (sperm), each with 23 chromo­somes.

Vas Deferens

Testos­terone Production

During puberty
Follic­le-­sti­mul­ating hormone (FSH) begins prodding semini­ferous tubules to produce sperm
Most important hormonal product of the testes
Lutein­izing hormone (LH) begins activating the inters­titial cells to produce testos­terone
Stimulates reprod­uctive organ develo­pment
Underlies sex drive
Causes secondary sex charac­ter­istics ̶ Deepening of voice ̶ Increased hair growth ̶ Enlarg­ement of skeletal muscles ̶ Increased bone growth and density

Female Reprod­uctive System

Duct system • Uterine (fallo­pian) tubes • Uterus • Vagina
External genitalia

Female Reprod­uctive System

Female Reprod­uctive System

The organs of the female reprod­uctive system are housed within the abdominal cavity.
The female’s primary reprod­uctive organs (gonads) are the ovaries. The ovaries produce ova, the female gametes.
The accessory organs­—which include the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina— extend from near the ovary to outside the body.

Internal Genitalia

Internal Genitalia

Fallopian Tubes
extend from the ovary to the uterus
A muscular chamber that houses and nurtures a growing embryo.
A receptacle for the penis and sperm, a route for the discharge of menstrual blood, and the passageway for the birth of a baby.
A narrow isthmusis the portion closest to the uterus.
It sits between the urinary bladder and the rectum, held in place by the broad ligament.
The smooth muscle walls of the vagina can expand greatly, such as during childb­irth.
The middle portion (the ampulla) is the usual site of egg fertil­iza­tion.
It tilts forward over the bladder. The curved, upper portion is the fundus
The vagina extends slightly beyond the cervix, creating pockets called fornices.
Cilia lining the inside of the beat to help propel the egg toward the uterus
The upper two corners connect with the fallopian tubes.
The distal end is the infund­ibulum.
The inferior end is the cervix.
. The fallopian tube does not attach directly to the ovary; finger­-like projec­tions called fimbriae fan over the ovary.
A passageway through the cervix, called the cervical canal, links the uterus to the vagina. Glands within the cervical canal secrete thick mucus; during ovulation, the mucus thins to allow sperm to pass.

Uterine (Fallo­pian) Tubes

Form the initial part of the duct system
Receive the ovulated oocyte from the ovaries
Provide a site for fertil­ization
Empty into the uterus
Little or no contact between ovaries and uterine tubes
Supported and enclosed by the broad ligament
Infund­ibulum • Distal, funnel­-shaped end
Fimbriae • Fingerlike projec­tions of the infund­ibulum • Receive the oocyte from the ovary • Cilia located inside the uterine tube transport the oocyte

Wall of the Uterus

Outer layer consisting of a serous membrane
Thick middle layer consisting of smooth muscle that contracts during labor
Innermost layer where embryo attaches
Stratum functi­onalis
• Thickens each month in antici­pation of fertilized egg • If fertil­ization doesn’t occur, it sloughs off, resulting in menstr­uation
• Attaches the endome­trium to the myometrium • Does not slough off; rather it helps functi­onalis layer regenerate each month
Roles of the wall of the uterus: house and nourish growing fetus and expel fetus
from body during delivery.


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