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Psyc Mid.Childhood - Emotional & Social Dev. Cheat Sheet by

Psychology: Middle Childhood and Emotional & Social Development

Erikson's Theory

Major Question: "How can I be good?"
Basic Virtue: Compet­ence.
Important Event(s): School
 
INDUSTRY
INFERI­ORITY
develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
can result in social and emotional struggles
develop a sense of pride in their accomp­lis­hments
pessimism & lack of confidence in one's ability to do tasks well
positive but realistic self-c­oncept
negative feelings are deepened from friend­s/f­ami­ly/­society
cooper­ative partic­ipation with agemates
lack in confidence because ppl in their lives do too

Moral Develo­pment

flexible moral rules: lying isn't always bad and the truth isn't always good
children begin to condiers intent­ions, more respect for conven­tions and purpose
develo­pment of disruptive justice
strict equality (5-6yrs)- comparing 2 values for equality
 
merit (6-7yrs)- good or worthy quality
 
equity: the quality of being fair and impartial) & Benevo­lence: the quality of being well-m­ean­ing­/ki­ndness (~8yrs)
Selman's Stages of perspe­ctive thinking
0) undiff­ere­ntiared (3-6yrs)- Children recognize that the self and others can have different thoughts and feelings, but they frequently confuse the two.
 
1) social­-in­for­mat­ional (4-9yrs)- Children understand that different perspe­ctives may result because people have access to different inform­ation.
 
2) self-r­efl­ective (7-12yrs)- Children can "step in another person's shoes" and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviour from the other person's perspe­ctive. They also recognize that others can do the same.
 
3) third-­party (10-15­yrs)- Children can step outside a two-person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third, impartial party.
 
4) societal (14yrs­-ad­ult)- Indivi­duals understand that third-­party perspe­cti­ve-­taking can be influenced by one or more systems of larger societal values.
 

Self-C­oncept

Social compar­isons: judgements about appear­ance, abilities, and behaviours in relation to those of others
children emphasize compet­encies
children describes both positive and negative person­ality traits > balance
less all-or­-none descri­ptions

Emotional Develo­pment

Self conscious emotions: are those affected by how we see ourselves and how we think others perceive us. governed by personal respon­sib­ility (pride, jealousy, embarr­ass­ment)
Emotional Unders­tan­ding: unders­tanding of the nature, causes, and contro­l/r­egu­lation of emotion. supported by cognitive develo­pment and social experience
Emotional Self-r­egu­lation: socially tolerable and suffic­iently flexible, motivated by self-e­steem & peer approval
problem centered coping: situation is change­able, identifies the diffic­ulties, and decides what to do about it
 
emotion centered coping: if problem doesnt work, it is internal, private, and aimed at contro­lling distress (when little can be done about the outcome)

Diversity & Inequality

Stereotype Threat: fear of beig judged on the basis of a negative stereotype (which can trigger anxiety)
by school age..c­hildren begin to assign stereotype traits to minorities
Develo­pment of Predju­dice:
fixed view of person­ality traits- traits are unchan­geable & are either good/bad
 
overly high self esteem- belittle disadv­antage people­/groups
 
social world where people are sorted into groups- if adults highlight better groups kids begin to as well
Reducing Predju­dice:
have intergroup contact
 
long-term contact & collab­oration
 
inducing to view other's trait as changeable & influences on those traits

Gender

Stereo­types: through person­alities traits (tough vs. gentle) & school subjects (athletics vs. arts)
identity: boys strengthen masculine identity & girls feminine identity decline
cultural & Social influe­nces: social media, passed down views of gender, advert­ise­ments, etc
Self Evalua­tions: affect adjust­ments, pressure to fit in / conform to gender roles
Gender Stereotype Flexib­ility: overlap in the charac­ter­istics of males and females
Gender Typica­lity: degree to which a child feels similar to others of the same gender
Gender Conten­ted­ness: degree to which a child feels comfor­table with their assigned gender
Pressure to conform to gender roles: degree to which a child feels parent­s/peers disapprove of their gender related traits
 

Self Esteem

Hierar­chical Structure- General Self Esteem:
a) Academic competence (grades, specific subjects)
 
b) Social competence (relat­ion­ships with parent and/or peers)
 
c) Physic­al/­ath­letic competence (outdoor games/­various sports)
 
d) Physical appearance (from peers/­fam­ily­/so­cie­ty/­media > influences youths overall satisf­action with themse­lves)
Influences on Self Esteem: Culture, gender, child-­rearing practices, achiev­ement related attrib­utions
master­y-o­riented attrib­utions: crediting their success to ability, improved by trying hard (effort pays off), increm­ental view of ability
 
learned helple­ssness: attribute their failures, not success, to ability (conclude success have to do with "­luc­k" not themse­lves), fixed view of ability
Attrib­ution Retrai­ning: encourages learne­d-h­elp­les­sness kids to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort & using effective strategies

Peer Groups

collective that generate uniqure values­/si­mil­arites and standards of behaviour
formed through proximity and simila­rities
 
Friend­ships: contribute to the develo­pment of trust and sensit­ivity
selective in choosing friends
 
learn to resolve disputes
Peer Accept­ance:
Popular- well-l­iked; prosocial: antiso­cial:
 
Rejected- disliked; aggres­sive: withdrawn:
 
Contro­ver­sial- liked and disliked
 
Neglected- are seldom mentioned
 
Average- average of being liked & disliked
Bullies: popula­r(not for long), powerful, aggressive
Victim: passive, frail, have helicopter parents

Family Influences

Parent­-Child Relati­ons­hips: children spend less time with parents in mid-ch­ildhood
Coregu­lation: superv­ision where parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment­-by­-moment decision making
children gain greater indepe­ndence but still need family support
Siblings: important sources of support through compan­ion­ship, emotional support, and assistance
rivalry- from parental compar­isons
 
compar­isons- of traits and accomp­lis­hments, results in quarelling
Only Children:
closer relati­onship with parents but have pressure for mastery
 
usually lack practice in conflict resolution
Homosexual Families: same as hetero but children are more open-m­inded and less discri­min­ation
Divorce: causes drop in income, instab­ility, conflict, family stress, increase risk for adjustment problems
Immediate Conseq­uences:
Age- young kids: often blame themse­lves, display anxious, defiant, fearful reactions. older kids: depressed moode, decline in grades, risky/­rec­kless behaviour OR take on more tasks, emotional support for single parent, mature behaviour, care for younger siblings.
 
Gender- Girls: intern­alize reactions. Boys: risk for adjustemnt problems. both: show demanding & attent­ion­-ge­tting behaviour
 
Temper­ament- difficult children: magnifies their diffic­ulties because of stress and inadequate parenting VS. easy children: not targets for parental anger & cope more effect­ively with adversity
Long Term Conseq­uences:
Improved adjustment (~2yrs later)
 
have lower self esteem, academic achiev­ement, & social competence
 

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