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Psyc Mid.Childhood - Cognitive Development Cheat Sheet by

Middle Childhood - Cognitive Development

Concrete Observ­ations

CONSER­VATION: decent­ration: focusing on several aspects of a problem. Revers­ibi­lity: thinkinh through a series of steps and the mental ability to reverse them
Classi­fic­ation: class inclusion problem, classi­fic­ation hierar­chies & can focus on general relati­onship between a category
SERIATION: ability to order along a numeral dimension (lengt­h/h­eight)
Spacial Reasoning: the unders­tanding of space, cognitive maps-m­ental maps we have of spaces
preschool- landmarks
 
8-10yrs - landmarks along organized route of trave;
 
10-12yrs - overall view of large scale space
Limita­tions: difficulty in performing mental operations with abtract ideas
impact of school and culture
continuum of acquis­ition: (gradual mastery)

Language Develo­pment

Metali­ngu­istic Awareness: ability to think about a language as a system (recursive thought & Theory of Mind)
Vocab: increase 4x/20 new words a day, speak better
Grammar: masters of complex constr­uctions & unders­tanding of infini­tives (verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb)
Pragma­tic­s(c­omm­uni­cative side of language): adjusts to situations & uses sarcasm
Narrat­ives: increase in organi­zation, detail, & expres­siv­eness
 

INFO PROCESSING

Executive Function- improves with the develo­pment of the prefrontal cortex, info-p­roc­essing speed and capacity are more effici­ent­/faster
Working Memory Capacity- less time needed to process info, increase efficiency of thinking
Memory Strategies
elabor­ation: creating a relati­onship btwn 2 pieces if info
 
organi­zation: grouping related items together
 
rehearsal: repeating info to ones self
Attention becomes more...
flexible - adapting attention to different requir­ements)
 
planful - of multistep tasks
 
selective - attention towards relative aspects of a task
Recursive Thought: ability to view a situation from at least 2 perspe­ctives
Second order false belief task
the unders­tanding that an indivi­dual's belief or repres­ent­ation about the world may contrast with reality
Cognitive Self-R­egu­lation: process of contin­uously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, & redire­cting unsucc­essful attempts

INFO PROCESSING & Academic Learning

Reading: whole language approa­ch-­exp­osing children to comple­te/­whole text. Phonol­ogical awareness- transl­ating written symbols into sounds
Math: applies strategies and reasoning approp­ria­tely. Learns facts & skills through practice

Defini­tions

Transitive Inference: ability to seriate (arranging items/­seq­uence) mentally
Cognitive Self-R­egu­lation: predicts academic success (set of constr­uctive behaviours that affect one's use of cognitive abilities to integrate learning processes)
Emotional Intell­igence (EQ): is the capability of indivi­duals to recognize their own emotions and those of others; predicts many aspects of success in the workplace
Dynamic Assess­ment: pretes­ting, purpos­efully interv­enes, & then retests an ethnic­-mi­nority child
 

INTELL­IGENCE

Measuring
IQ: Intell­igence Quotient- represent general intell­igence or reasoning ability
WISC-IV: Weschler Intell­igence Scale For Childr­en-IV: was made to downplay culture dependent info.m­easure general intell­igence
four broad factors: verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed
SternBerg Triarchic Theory of successful intell­igence:
Analyt­ical- info processing skills (applying strate­gies)
 
Creative- capacity to solve new problems
 
Practical- applic­ation of intell­ectual skills in everyday situations (adapt­/sh­ape­/select enviro­nments
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intell­igence
Linguistic - poet/j­our­nalist
 
Logico­-ma­the­mat­ical- mathme­tician
 
Musica­l-c­omp­ose­r/i­nst­rum­ent­alist
 
Spatia­l-n­avi­gat­or/­scu­lptor
 
Bodily­-ki­nes­thetic - dancer­/at­hlete
 
Natura­list- biologist
 
interp­ers­onal- therapist
 
intrap­ers­onal- detailed & accurate self-k­now­ledge
Social & Emotional Intell­igence: to be able to perceive, unders­tand, and regulate emotions

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