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Ecology, Transfer of Energy, Enzymes for Test Cheat Sheet by

Cheatsheet for a couple of dumb freshmen

The Water Cycle

3 Main Steps
1.) Evapor­ation through solar energy
2.) Conden­sation of vapor into clouds
3.) Precip­itation of rain

Relati­onships Symbiosis

symboisis
a relati­onship between two different species
para­sit­ism
one benefits while other is harmed /
mutu­alism
both benefits /
commensalism
one benefits and other is unaffected /

Vocabulary

abiotic factors
nonliving, physical features
biotic factors
living organisms
popu­lat­ion
same species in one given area (breed to have fertile children)
carrying capacity
the limit a population can grow to
limiting factor
the reason why popula­tions can't grow infinitely

Vocabulary Pt. 2

competition
occurs when two or more species rely on similar limiting factors
interspecific competition
compet­ition between diffrent species
Intraspecific competition
compet­ition between same species
predation
one animal captures and feeds on another animal
cryptic coloration
literally just camouflage
aposematic coloration
bright, warning patterns
batesian mimicry
harmless species mimics a dangerous one
mullerian mimicry
a few different species mimic each other, so predators know to avoid animals with that pattern

Energy Vocabulary

energy
capacity to do work or cause change
chemical energy
energystored in organic molecules
free energy
portion of energyreleased during reactions that is available to do work
autotrophs
make own food
heterotrophs
obtain food from outside source
activation energy
energyneeded to "­act­iva­te" reaction and break the bonds between atoms
catalysts
speed up the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energyneeded (is not used up or changed in reaction)

Vocabulary Pt. 3

synthesis
“build­ing-up” reactions - store energy
decomposition
“breaking down” reactions - result in energy release
ATP energy
cellular energy currency
^^ ATP can store/­release small amounts of energy. The bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate is made or broken to exchange energy.
 

The Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is essential to building DNA & Proteins (which make up you)

The main steps in this process are:
1.) Nitrog­en-­fixing bacteria can change nitrogen in the air into something that can be used to make DNA & Proteins
2.) Bacteria give that nitrogen to plants most of the time, and then it moves its way up the food chain

Population

Density Indepe­ndent Factors
affect population sizes no matter the size
* Natural disasters
* Climate change
^ Drought, extreme weather, or events

Density Dependent Factors
affect popula­tions size as they approach carrying capacity
* Compet­ition for space, shelter, food
* Predators, disease, stress, parasitism

Ecological Succession

Defi­nit­ion:
The process by which an existing community is gradually replaced by another community

Pioneer Species:
first to colonize new, or previously disturbed or damaged ecosys­tems, beginning a chain of ecological succession that ultimately leads to a more biodiverse steady­-state ecosystem

Succ­ession Steps:
1.) Lichen and Moss, as well as bacteria, grow and put nitrogen in the soil
2.) Grasses start to dominate the area and put even more nitrogen back in the soil
3.) Bushes, shrubs, and small trees inhabit the area next and put EVEN MORE nitrogen back in the soil
4.) Finally, there is enough nitrogen in the soil to support large trees and forest which come last.

Types of Reactions

Endo­the­rmic
- Stores energy overall
- More energy is needed to break bonds than amount of energy released
- Ex: photos­ynt­hesis

Exot­her­mic
- Energy is released
- Less energy is needed to break bonds than is released when forming new bonds
- Ex: cellular respir­ation

Energy Exchange in Cells

- Decomposition reactions release energy
- Oxidation is the removal of electrons from a molecule
- Bonds are broken and rearranged
- Some energy of the original molecule is released as heat and free energy
- Free energy is finally captured in ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Enzymes

- Protein molecules that act as cataly­sts
- Specific to a Substance or Reaction
- Speeds up Biological Reactions to 10,000­,00­0,000 Times Faster

How Enzymes Work
- Bind to specific reactants to form a complex
- Reactant enzymes interact with subs­tra­tes
- Substrates bind to the enzyme in a location called the Active Site

Factors Affecting Enzyme Action
- When conditions are not ideal for an enzyme, it dena­tur­es
- Dena­turing an enzyme will cause the 3D shape of the active site, making the enzyme nonfun­cti­onal
 

The Carbon Cycle

The main steps in this cycle are:
1.) Photos­ynt­hesis removes CO2 from the atmosp­here
2.) Death/­Dec­omp­osition and Respir­ation add CO2 to the atmosp­here

Burning of fossil fuels adds CO2 to the atmosphere as well

Primary Succession

Secondary Succession

Defleating Succession

Energy Transfer Throug­hTr­ophic Levels

Ezyme

S Curves vs J Curves

 

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