Show Menu

24 Pathophysiology of the Nervous System Cheat Sheet by

Stroke = acute ischemia, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, & venous sinus thrombosis


Defini­tion: Sudden death of brain cells in a localised brain region due to inadequate blood flow
Risk factor­s/c­auses:
- Age (above 55), race/e­thn­icity (African Americans, Hispan­ics), sex (male over females), hormones (birth control use/ho­rmone therapies)
- Lifestyle: overwe­ight, physical inacti­vity, alcoho­l/drug abuse
- Medical: hypert­ension, smoking, high choles­terol, diabetes, obstru­ctive sleep apnea, cardio­vas­cular disease (heart failure, defects, infection or arrhythmia [atrial fibril­lat­ion]), family Hx (stroke, heart attack, transient ischemic attack), covid-19
Pathop­hys­iology & mechanism: Acute ischemia / intrac­erebral haemor­rhage / subara­chnoid haemor­rhage / venous sinus thrombosis → impaired blood supply to affected area → loss of function, with symptoms related to the function of the affected brain tissue → stroke
Signs & symptoms:
- Trouble speaking & unders­tanding what others are saying
- Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg
- Problems seeing in one or both eyes
- Headache
- Trouble walking
- Paralysis or loss of muscle movement
- Difficulty talking or swallowing
- Memory loss or thinking difficulties
- Emotional problems
- Pain
- Changes in behaviour & self-care ability
Treatment: Medication & surgery


Stroke (contnd)


Acute ischemia

Defini­tion: Local/­distant cause - blood clot (embolus) blocks­/na­rrows an artery leading to the brain causing cell death
Risk factor­s/c­auses:
- Hypert­ension, diabetes, heart condit­ions, smoking, males over 55, Hx of stroke or TIA
- Fatty deposits that build up in blood vessels or by blood clots or other debris that travel through the bloods­tream, most often from the heart, & lodge in the blood vessels in the brain
Pathop­hys­iology & mechanism: Small artery occlusion / large artery athero­scl­erosis / cardiac embolism / other → cerebral blood flow is impaired →damage is the lack of blood flow (ischemia) → ↑cell death / inflam­mation of brain tissue → signs/­sym­ptoms
Signs & symptoms:
- Severe headache without known cause
- Numbness or weakness of face, arms, legs (espec­ially one side)
- Confusion
- Trouble seeing in or both eyes
- Trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordi­nation
- Blood clots
- UTIs
- Bowel & bladder problems
- Pneumonia risk
- Muscle weakness
- Bed sores
- Mobility problems & falls
Treatment: Clot-b­usting medica­tions & using a guided wire to retrieve blood clots in the blood vessels (aka. focus on restoring blood flow to the brain)

Acute Ischemia

Acute Ischemia



No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          CN IX- XII Cheat Sheet
          Lobes of the brain + intracranial disorders Cheat Sheet
          31 Commonly Seen Drugs Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by bee.f

          31 Commonly Seen Drugs Cheat Sheet
          6002 Ankle & Foot Cheat Sheet
          6002 Knee & Lower Leg Cheat Sheet